One feature of nineteenth-century German migrant communities was a dense network of religious and secular ethnic institutions in virtually all destination countries. The article is a microhistorical study of a representative German community in Britain. Ethnic institutions in Glasgow included two protestant congregations and a variety of associations fostering sociability, culture and philanthropy. The institutions served as a platform to negotiate questions of ethnicity, class and gender. They were mostly financed by a small elite within the German business community which, in turn, used them to exercise power and confirm social stratification. In the pre-war years, ethnic life was increasingly permeated by nationalism.
- business community
- ethnic associations