Since long-term treatment with imipramine increases the neuropeptide Y (NPY) levels in the frontal cortex and hypothalamus, the possibility exists that the antidepressant action of imipramine may be mediated via the NPY Y1 receptors. Bilateral olfactory bulbectomy (OBX) resulted in hyperactivity (increased number of ambulation, rearing and grooming episodes) in open field test (OFT) suggesting a depression-like condition. Chronic (14 days) administration of NPY, NPY Y1/Y5 receptor agonist [Leu31, Pro34]-NPY (intracerebroventricular, icv) or tricyclic antidepressant imipramine (intraperitoneal) to OBX rats dose-dependently resulted in decreased hyperactivity in OFT, while selective NPY Y1 receptor antagonist BIBP3226 (icv) produced opposite effects. The antidepressant actions of imipramine were enhanced by co-administration of NPY or [Leu31, Pro34]-NPY, and antagonized by BIBP3226 given at sub-effective doses. The data suggest that NPY, acting via NPY Y1 receptors, may be involved in antidepressant action of imipramine in OBX rats.