A smart mattress based on optical fiber Mach-zender interferometer (OF-MZI) is designed for noninvasive and continuous monitoring of human vital signs. Through arranging the sensing fiber between two elastic covering layers with sandwich structure, the mattress was sensitive to the respiration and heartbeat induced micro-pressure. In the processing terminal, the waveforms of vital signs were demodulated by 3 *3 coupler based differentiate and cross-multiplying method, and then four characteristic indicators including the heart rate, heartbeat amplitude, respiration rate, and respiration amplitude were respectively extracted through feature extraction algorithm, for evaluating the human health condition. Clinical experimental results of eighteen subjects indicate that the mattress system could not only distinguish the activity states of no body, on bed, body movement and off bed, but also contribute to clinical diagnosis of bradycardia, tachycardia, polypnea and apnoea. By adopting Bland–Altman analysis method, good reproducibility and accuracy were confirmed, where the max errors of heart rate and respiration rate are respectively 2 bpm and 1 bpm. Moreover, the responses at different positions of the mattress are identical and the continuous monitoring results in one day are consistent with daily change of vital signs, which proves that the fiber optic mattress has good reliability and stability. Beneficial from high-sensitivity, multiple parameters, long-term continuous monitoring, high comfortability and low cost, the mattress is promising in the early detection and prevention of cardiac and respiratory diseases as a household medical device.
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- Smart mattress
- healthcare monitoring
- optical fiber Mach-Zender interferometer