Fuel cells (FCs) have received huge attention for development from lab and pilot scales to full commercial scale. This is mainly due to their inherent advantage of direct conversion of chemical energy to electrical energy as a high-quality energy supply and, hence, higher conversion efficiency. Additionally, FCs have been produced at a wide range of capacities with high flexibility due to modularity characteristics. Using the right materials and efficient manufacturing processes is directly proportional to the total production cost. This work explored the different components of proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) and their manufacturing processes. The challenges associated with these manufacturing processes were critically analyzed, and possible mitigation strategies were proposed. The PEMFC is a relatively new and developing technology so there is a need for a thorough analysis to comprehend the current state of fuel cell operational characteristics and discover new areas for development. It is hoped that the view discussed in this paper will be a means for improved fuel cell development.
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- fuel cells’ materials
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