Background and Objectives: Nutritional management of blood glucose levels is a strategic target in the prevention and management of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), applicable across the population. To implement a successful strategy it is essential to understand the impact of dietary modulation on the postprandial rise in blood glucose concentrations. Methods: Using the highest quality data, a systematic and comprehensive literature review was undertaken. Included in this review were the major macronutrients (carbohydrate, pro-tein, fat), micronutrient vitamins and minerals, non-nutrient phytochemicals and additional foods such as low-calorie sweeteners, vinegar and alcohol. Results: The strongest corroboration of efficacy for improving glucose homeostasis was for insoluble and moderately fermentable cereal-based fiber and mono-unsaturated fatty acids as replacement of saturated fat. Postprandial glycaemia was decreased by intake of viscous soluble fiber and the predominant mechanism of action was considered to be by delaying absorption of co-ingested carbohydrates. There was weaker but substantial evidence that certain phytochemical-rich foods were likely to be effective. This may be associated with the su-ggestion that the gut microbiota plays an important role in me-tabolic regulation, which includes provision of phytochemical and other metabolites. Conclusions: Based on the evidence, it is clear that dietary components have significant and clinically relevant effects on blood glucose modulation. This suggests that employing a dietary regimen to attenuate the postprandial rise in blood glucose levels along with previously identified targets (reducing excess body weight and an increase in physical activity) will benefit the health of the population and limit the increasing worldwide incidence of T2D.
20th International Congress of Nutrition: Granada, Spain, 15–20 September 2013
- postprandial glycaemia
- blood glucose