Offshore-to-Nearshore Transformation of Wave Conditions and Directional Extremes with Application to Port Resonances in the Bay of Sitia-Crete

Flora Karathanasi, Angeliki Karperaki, Theodoros Gerostathis, Kostas Belibassakis*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


For coastal engineering studies and the ecient design of ports and harbors, reliable information concerning wave conditions in nearshore and coastal sites is needed. In the absence of long-term wave data at the site of interest, this becomes possible by using offshore data, which are usually available in the nearby geographical area, in addition to bathymetric and coastline information concerning the nearshore area and the local site. The latter are used in conjunction with a suitable wave model, which calculates the offshore-to-nearshore transformation of wave conditions and incorporates the relevant shallow-water phenomena. In the present work, the above methodology is applied to calculate the nearshore wave conditions in the Bay of Sitia, Crete, by applying the Simulating WAves Nearshore (SWAN) model. The interesting feature of the Bay of Sitia is its vulnerability due to strong erosion, which downgrades the touristic value of the beach. Furthermore, nearshore wave data offer valuable information concerning further coastal and port engineering studies. In this context, results from directional extreme value analysis of the nearshore wave conditions in the Sitia Bay are derived and used to investigate resonances in the enclosed marina of the Sitia port, by taking into account the depth variations inside the basin. To this end, a novel method was developed based on the modified mild-slope equation, in conjunction with the Finite Element Model, for the solution of the nonlinear eigenvalue problem.

Original languageEnglish
Article number280
Number of pages22
Issue number3
Early online date12 Mar 2020
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2020

Bibliographical note

Copyright © 2020 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution
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  • Directional extreme wave data
  • Nearshore wave climate
  • Offshore-to-nearshore wave transformation
  • Port resonances


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