INTRODUCTION. Retrospective Analysis
PURPOSE. To evaluate the morphology and location of optic disc haemorrhages (ODH) identified at diabetic retinopathy (DR) screening to establish whether particular ODH are predictive of ocular disease (e.g. glaucoma).
METHODS. Retrospective analysis of 77 patients who presented with ODH at DR screening in the Birmingham and Black Country screening programme between June 2009-March 2010. Mean age was 71 years (range 39-89). Cup/disc ratio (CDR), location and morphology of the haemorrhage were recorded. The outcome of the referral and the status of the ODH were followed up a year later.
RESULTS. Of the 77 referred, 34 patients were unassessed for possible glaucoma. Of the 43 patients that were assessed in the hospital eye service for glaucoma, 11 (26%) were diagnosed with glaucoma. These glaucoma patients mostly presented with flame haemorrhages (64%) and blot haemorrhages (36%). Haemorrhages tended to adjoin the margin of the OD (64%), and were more commonly flame shaped (64%). They less commonly occurred in the optic disc itself (36%), and were all blot shaped. The OD Cup/disc ratio (CDR) of the patients with glaucoma (n=11) ranged from 0.33-0.57. It is interesting to note the highest CDR was 0.68 in the 77 patients referred. 32 patients were confirmed as not having glaucoma. 24 (75%) of these patients presented with an ODH adjoining the margin, of which 20 (83%) were flame, and 4 blot (17%) shaped. Only 8 (25%) presented with an ODH in the OD, of which 6 (75%) were blot shaped. One year follow up of the 77 referred cases revealed that the ODH resolved in 45 (57%) patients while 10 (13%) still had an ODH present. 15 (21%) were still under ophthalmology hence digital retinal photos were not available for assessment. Six patients (8%) (age range 71-91 years) died within the year, and one lost to follow up.
CONCLUSIONS. The results suggest that a significant number of patients with ODH have glaucoma and that the differing morphology of the haemorrhage is not a major predictor i.e. blot versus flame shaped, adjoining or in the optic disc. The cup/disc ratio did not predict glaucoma either.