Background: A large body of evidence supports a role of oxidative stress in Alzheimer disease (AD) and in cerebrovascular disease. A vascular component might be critical in the pathophysiology of AD. Objective(s): To evaluate the simultaneous behavior of a broad spectrum of peripheral antioxidants and biomarkers of oxidative stress in AD and vascular dementia (VaD). Methods: Sixty-three AD patients, 23 VaD patients and 55 controls were included in the study. We measured plasma levels of water-soluble (vitamin C and uric acid) and lipophilic (vitamin E, vitamin A, carotenoids including lutein, zeaxanthin, [3-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, c~- and [3-carotene) antioxidant micronutrients as well as levels of biomarkers of lipid peroxidation [malondialdehyde (MDA)] and of protein oxidation [immunoglobniin G (Ig G) levels of protein carbonyls and dityrosine] in patients and controls. Results: AD and VaD patients showed significantly decreased plasma levels of the water-soluble vitamin C and uric acid, of the lipophilic vitamin Eand vitamin A, and of the carotenoids lutein, zeaxanthin, 13-cryptoxanthin, lycopene and (x-carotene as compared to controls; among biomarkers of oxidative stress, only the content of dityrosine in Ig G was found to be significantly higher (p < 0.01) in AD patients as compared to controls; although a trend towards higher levels of dityrosine was also observed in VaD subjects compared to controls (6.3 4- 1.7 ~M in VaD patients vs. 5.1 4- 1.6 IxM in controls; p = 0.06), it did not reach statistical significance. In a cumulative analysis of all patient samples, a significant inverse association was found between plasma lycopene and MDA levels (r = -0.53, p < 0.0001). Conclusions: Independent of its nature-vascular or degenerativedementia is associated with the depletion of a large spectrum of antioxidant micronutrients and with increased protein oxidative modification. This might be relevant to the pathophysiology of dementing disorders, particularly in light of the recently suggested importance of the vascular component in AD development.
Bibliographical noteAbstracts from the 9th International Conference on Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorders
- oxidative stress
- Alzheimer disease
- cerebrovascular disease
- peripheral antioxidants biomarkers
- vascular dementia