Parkinson's disease Part 1: symptoms, diagnosis and changes in the brain

Richard A. Armstrong

Research output: Contribution to specialist publication or newspaperArticle


Parkinson's disease is a common neurodegenerative disorder of middle-aged and elderly people. There are two aspects of the disease of special interest to optometrists. First, visual problems may be present in a proportion of patients with the disease. In addition, the disease is treated by a variety of drugs, some of which may have ocular complications. This article describes the incidence, symptoms, diagnosis, causes and changes in the brain in Parkinson's disease.
Original languageEnglish
Number of pages2
Specialist publicationOptometry Today
Publication statusPublished - Oct 1993


  • Parkinson
  • disease
  • common neurodegenerative disorder
  • optometrists
  • drugs
  • ocular complications
  • changes
  • brain


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