BRG1, an active subunit of the SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling complex, enables the EP300-dependent transcription of proliferation and DNA repair genes from their E2F/CpG-driven promoters in breast cancer cells. In the current study, we show that BRG1–EP300 complexes are accompanied by poly-ADP-ribose polymerase 1 (PARP1), which emerges as the functional component of the promoter-bound multiprotein units that are capable of controlling gene expression. This enzyme is co-distributed with BRG1 at highly acetylated promoters of genes such as CDK4, LIG1, or NEIL3, which are responsible for cancer cell growth and the removal of DNA damage. ADP-ribosylation is necessary to maintain active transcription, since it ensures an open chromatin structure that allows high acetylation and low histone density. PARP1-mediated modification of BRG1 and EP300 does not affect the association of enzymes with gene promoters; however, it does activate EP300, which acetylates nucleosomes, leading to their eviction by BRG1, thus allowing mRNA synthesis. Although PARP1 was found at BRG1 positive/H3K27ac negative promoters of highly expressed genes in a transformed breast cancer cell line, its transcriptional activity was limited to genes simultaneously controlled by BRG1 and EP300, indicating that the ADP-ribosylation of EP300 plays a dominant role in the regulation of BRG1–EP300-driven transcription. In conclusion, PARP1 directs the transcription of some proliferation and DNA repair genes in breast cancer cells by the ADP-ribosylation of EP300, thereby causing its activation and marking nucleosomes for displacement by BRG1. PARP1 in rapidly dividing cells facilitates the expression of genes that confer a cancer cell phenotype. Our study shows a new mechanism that links PARP1 with the removal of DNA damage in breast cancer cells via the regulation of BRG1–EP300-dependent transcription of genes involved in DNA repair pathways.
Bibliographical note© 2019 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
Funding: Polish National Science Center, grant number DEC-2013/11/D/NZ2/00033; Ministry of Science and Higher Education (776/STYP/11/2016).
- Brahma-related gene 1 (BRG1)
- Cancer cell
- Gene transcription
- Histone acetyltransferase p300 (EP300)
- Poly-ADP-ribose polymerase 1 (PARP1)