Photic- and pattern-induced seizures: Expert consensus of the epilepsy foundation of america working group

Graham Harding, Arnold J. Wilkins, Giuseppe Erba, Gregory L. Barkley, Robert S. Fisher*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Purpose: In August, 2004, the Epilepsy Foundation of America convened a workshop to begin to develop an expert consensus on photosensitive seizures. Methods: Literature and data were reviewed, and consensus was derived from discussion. Results: A flash is a potential hazard if it has luminance ≥20 cd/m2, occurs at a frequency of ≥3 Hz, and occupies a solid visual angle of ≥0.006 steradians (∼10% of the central visual field or 25% of screen area at typical viewing distances). A transition to or from saturated red also is considered a risk. A pattern with the potential for provoking seizures contains clearly discernible stripes, numbering more than five light-dark pairs of stripes in any orientation. When the light-dark stripes of any pattern collectively subtend at the eye from the minimal-expected viewing distance a solid angle of >0.006 steradians, the luminance of the lightest stripe is >50 cd/m2, and the pattern is presented for ≥0.5 s, then the pattern should display no more than five light-dark pairs of stripes, if the stripes change direction, oscillate, flash, or reverse in contrast; if the pattern is unchanging or smoothly drifting in one direction, no more than eight stripes. These principles are easier to apply in the case of fixed media, for example, a prerecorded TV show, which can be analyzed frame-by-frame, as compared with interactive media. Conclusions: A consensus view of stimuli likely to provoke visually evoked seizures can be developed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1423-1425
Number of pages3
JournalEpilepsia
Volume46
Issue number9
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Sep 2005

Fingerprint

Epilepsy
Consensus
Seizures
Light
Visual Fields
Education
Direction compound

Keywords

  • Epilepsy
  • Expert consensus
  • Photosensitivity
  • Reflex seizures
  • Seizures

Cite this

Harding, Graham ; Wilkins, Arnold J. ; Erba, Giuseppe ; Barkley, Gregory L. ; Fisher, Robert S. / Photic- and pattern-induced seizures : Expert consensus of the epilepsy foundation of america working group. In: Epilepsia. 2005 ; Vol. 46, No. 9. pp. 1423-1425.
@article{438f279b131e46689cc4c5b5c3c0b1e2,
title = "Photic- and pattern-induced seizures: Expert consensus of the epilepsy foundation of america working group",
abstract = "Purpose: In August, 2004, the Epilepsy Foundation of America convened a workshop to begin to develop an expert consensus on photosensitive seizures. Methods: Literature and data were reviewed, and consensus was derived from discussion. Results: A flash is a potential hazard if it has luminance ≥20 cd/m2, occurs at a frequency of ≥3 Hz, and occupies a solid visual angle of ≥0.006 steradians (∼10{\%} of the central visual field or 25{\%} of screen area at typical viewing distances). A transition to or from saturated red also is considered a risk. A pattern with the potential for provoking seizures contains clearly discernible stripes, numbering more than five light-dark pairs of stripes in any orientation. When the light-dark stripes of any pattern collectively subtend at the eye from the minimal-expected viewing distance a solid angle of >0.006 steradians, the luminance of the lightest stripe is >50 cd/m2, and the pattern is presented for ≥0.5 s, then the pattern should display no more than five light-dark pairs of stripes, if the stripes change direction, oscillate, flash, or reverse in contrast; if the pattern is unchanging or smoothly drifting in one direction, no more than eight stripes. These principles are easier to apply in the case of fixed media, for example, a prerecorded TV show, which can be analyzed frame-by-frame, as compared with interactive media. Conclusions: A consensus view of stimuli likely to provoke visually evoked seizures can be developed.",
keywords = "Epilepsy, Expert consensus, Photosensitivity, Reflex seizures, Seizures",
author = "Graham Harding and Wilkins, {Arnold J.} and Giuseppe Erba and Barkley, {Gregory L.} and Fisher, {Robert S.}",
year = "2005",
month = "9",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1111/j.1528-1167.2005.31305.x",
language = "English",
volume = "46",
pages = "1423--1425",
journal = "Epilepsia",
issn = "0013-9580",
publisher = "Wiley",
number = "9",

}

Photic- and pattern-induced seizures : Expert consensus of the epilepsy foundation of america working group. / Harding, Graham; Wilkins, Arnold J.; Erba, Giuseppe; Barkley, Gregory L.; Fisher, Robert S.

In: Epilepsia, Vol. 46, No. 9, 01.09.2005, p. 1423-1425.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Photic- and pattern-induced seizures

T2 - Expert consensus of the epilepsy foundation of america working group

AU - Harding, Graham

AU - Wilkins, Arnold J.

AU - Erba, Giuseppe

AU - Barkley, Gregory L.

AU - Fisher, Robert S.

PY - 2005/9/1

Y1 - 2005/9/1

N2 - Purpose: In August, 2004, the Epilepsy Foundation of America convened a workshop to begin to develop an expert consensus on photosensitive seizures. Methods: Literature and data were reviewed, and consensus was derived from discussion. Results: A flash is a potential hazard if it has luminance ≥20 cd/m2, occurs at a frequency of ≥3 Hz, and occupies a solid visual angle of ≥0.006 steradians (∼10% of the central visual field or 25% of screen area at typical viewing distances). A transition to or from saturated red also is considered a risk. A pattern with the potential for provoking seizures contains clearly discernible stripes, numbering more than five light-dark pairs of stripes in any orientation. When the light-dark stripes of any pattern collectively subtend at the eye from the minimal-expected viewing distance a solid angle of >0.006 steradians, the luminance of the lightest stripe is >50 cd/m2, and the pattern is presented for ≥0.5 s, then the pattern should display no more than five light-dark pairs of stripes, if the stripes change direction, oscillate, flash, or reverse in contrast; if the pattern is unchanging or smoothly drifting in one direction, no more than eight stripes. These principles are easier to apply in the case of fixed media, for example, a prerecorded TV show, which can be analyzed frame-by-frame, as compared with interactive media. Conclusions: A consensus view of stimuli likely to provoke visually evoked seizures can be developed.

AB - Purpose: In August, 2004, the Epilepsy Foundation of America convened a workshop to begin to develop an expert consensus on photosensitive seizures. Methods: Literature and data were reviewed, and consensus was derived from discussion. Results: A flash is a potential hazard if it has luminance ≥20 cd/m2, occurs at a frequency of ≥3 Hz, and occupies a solid visual angle of ≥0.006 steradians (∼10% of the central visual field or 25% of screen area at typical viewing distances). A transition to or from saturated red also is considered a risk. A pattern with the potential for provoking seizures contains clearly discernible stripes, numbering more than five light-dark pairs of stripes in any orientation. When the light-dark stripes of any pattern collectively subtend at the eye from the minimal-expected viewing distance a solid angle of >0.006 steradians, the luminance of the lightest stripe is >50 cd/m2, and the pattern is presented for ≥0.5 s, then the pattern should display no more than five light-dark pairs of stripes, if the stripes change direction, oscillate, flash, or reverse in contrast; if the pattern is unchanging or smoothly drifting in one direction, no more than eight stripes. These principles are easier to apply in the case of fixed media, for example, a prerecorded TV show, which can be analyzed frame-by-frame, as compared with interactive media. Conclusions: A consensus view of stimuli likely to provoke visually evoked seizures can be developed.

KW - Epilepsy

KW - Expert consensus

KW - Photosensitivity

KW - Reflex seizures

KW - Seizures

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=26944458180&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1111/j.1528-1167.2005.31305.x

DO - 10.1111/j.1528-1167.2005.31305.x

M3 - Article

C2 - 16146438

AN - SCOPUS:26944458180

VL - 46

SP - 1423

EP - 1425

JO - Epilepsia

JF - Epilepsia

SN - 0013-9580

IS - 9

ER -