Physicochemical characterization of grewia polysaccharide gum: effect of drying method

Elijah I. Nep, Barbara R. Conway

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Grewia polysaccharide gum, a potential pharmaceutical excipient was extracted from the inner stem bark of Grewia mollis, thereupon drying was achieved by three techniques: air-drying, freeze-drying and spray-drying. Analysis of the monosaccharide composition including 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopic analysis of the polysaccharide gum was carried out. The effect of the drying methods on the physicochemical properties of the gum was evaluated by Fourier transformed infra-red (FT-IR) spectroscopy, solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry and gel permeation chromatography. Monosaccharide sugar analysis revealed that the gum is composed of glucose, rhamnose, galactose, arabinose and xylose as the main neutral sugars. These were supported by the results from 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopic analysis. FT-IR and solid-state NMR results indicated that drying technique has little effect on the structure of the polysaccharide gum but XPS showed that surface chemistry of the gum varied with drying methods. Thermogravimetric analyses showed that oxidation onset varied according to the drying method. The molecular weight was also dependent on the drying technique. For industrial extrapolation, air-drying may be preferable to spray-drying and freeze-drying when relative cost, product stability and powder flow are required, for example in tablet formulation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)446-453
Number of pages8
JournalCarbohydrate Polymers
Issue number1
Early online date8 Dec 2010
Publication statusPublished - 11 Feb 2011


  • drying method
  • excipient
  • extraction
  • grewia polysaccharide gum


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