Based on the combined use of polymerisable polyacrylamide, collagen and an aqueous solution of Flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), we have developed a new technique for fabrication of composite phantoms mimicking fluorescence properties of human skin. A comparative analysis of the absorption and scattering coefficients, refractive indices, as well as fluorescence spectra of phantoms with different concentrations of FAD measured with the combined use of a CCD spectrometer and a hyperspectral camera is presented. To obtain values of scattering coefficients close to those for human skin, zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles are added to the polyacrylamide polymer structure. Variations both in the shape of the spectrum and in the intensity of the fluorescence signal in the phantoms are provided by the changes in the volume fraction of FAD and collagen. It is shown that the model fluorescence spectra are in good agreement with the results of direct human skin measurements in vivo.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Acknowledgements. The work was supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (Project Nos 18-02-00669 and 19-72-30012). A.D. and I.M. thank the Academy of Finland for the support of Projects Nos 326204 and 325097. V.D. acknowledges personal support from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under the Marie Składowska-Curie Grant Agreement No. 839888. V.Sh. and E.Zh. thank Russian Science Foundation (Grant No. 20-75-00123, development of the composition of samples). The authors are also grateful to Timo Hyvarinen and Katja Lefevre (Spectral Imaging Ltd., Finland) for the equipment provided.
- Flavin adenine dinucleotide
- Fluorescence spectroscopy
- Human skin
- Hyperspectral imaging
- Optical properties