Poly(glycerol adipate-co-ω-pentadecalactone) spray-dried microparticles as sustained release carriers for pulmonary delivery

Hesham Tawfeek, Sayed Khidr, Eman Samy, Sayed Ahmed, Mark Murphy, Afzaal Mohammed, Anjum Shabir, Gillian Hutcheon, Imran Saleem*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Purpose: The aim of this work was to optimize biodegradable polyester poly(glycerol adipate-co-ω-pentadecalactone), PGA-co-PDL, microparticles as sustained release (SR) carriers for pulmonary drug delivery.

Methods: Microparticles were produced by spray drying directly from double emulsion with and without dispersibility enhancers (L-arginine and L-leucine) (0.5-1.5%w/w) using sodium fluorescein (SF) as a model hydrophilic drug.

Results: Spray-dried microparticles without dispersibility enhancers exhibited aggregated powders leading to low fine particle fraction (%FPF) (28.79±3.24), fine particle dose (FPD) (14.42±1.57 μg), with a mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) 2.86±0.24 μm. However, L-leucine was significantly superior in enhancing the aerosolization performance ( L-arginine:%FPF 27.61±4.49-26.57±1.85; FPD 12.40±0.99-19.54±0.16 μg and MMAD 2.18±0.35-2. 98±0.25 μm, L-leucine:%FPF 36.90±3.6-43.38±5. 6; FPD 18.66±2.90-21.58±2.46 μg and MMAD 2.55±0.03-3. 68±0.12 μm). Incorporating L-leucine (1.5%w/w) reduced the burst release (24.04±3.87%) of SF compared to unmodified formulations (41.87±2.46%), with both undergoing a square root of time (Higuchi's pattern) dependent release. Comparing the toxicity profiles of PGA-co-PDL with L-leucine (1.5%w/w) (5 mg/ml) and poly(lactide-co-glycolide), (5 mg/ml) spray-dried microparticles in human bronchial epithelial 16HBE14o-cell lines, resulted in cell viability of 85.57±5.44 and 60.66±6.75%, respectively, after 72 h treatment.

Conclusion:The above data suggest that PGA-co-PDL may be a useful polymer for preparing SR microparticle carriers, together with dispersibility enhancers, for pulmonary delivery.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2086-2097
Number of pages12
JournalPharmaceutical Research
Issue number9
Early online date2 May 2011
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2011


  • dry powder inhalation
  • microparticles
  • polyester polymers
  • pulmonary drug delivery
  • sustained drug release


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