Process performance evaluation of faecal matter treatment via black soldier fly

Valary Oyoo, Joy Nyawira Riungu, Prasanta Dey, James Gitonga Kirimi, Rosemary M. Matheka

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Sustainable management of faecal matter is a prevailing global challenge. In this study, we assessed black soldier fly (BSF) process performance during co-treatment of faecal matter using kitchen waste (FM:KW) to formulate five feeding substrates. About 1 kg of each feed substrate was treated utilizing 5 g of 5-day-old BSF larvae after which 100 larvae were randomly picked at 3-day intervals from each treatment to monitor the larval weight gain across the treatment process. Larval days to 50% pupation, mean pupal yield, waste reduction rate (WR), bioconversion rates (BRs), and feed conversion rates (FCRs) were monitored for the process performance. Study results showed that the substrate 1:1 attained the best measures of high WR, waste reduction index (WRI), BR, FCR, and overall pre-pupal yield within a shorter development time. Further, we modelled the BSF larval weight gain using the modified Gompertz model to assess the least time for optimal biomass conversion for animal feed processing. The BSF larvae exhibited an S-shaped growth curve and the modified Gompertz model adequately quantified the BSF larval growth performance. In the future, our methodology will pave the way for effective treatment and valorization of faecal matter from onsite sanitation facilities, manage organic municipal wastes and provide alternative animal feed and bio-fertilizer.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)441-452
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Development
Issue number6
Early online date18 May 2023
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jun 2023

Bibliographical note

Copyright The Authors 2023. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Licence (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0), which permits copying and redistribution for non-commercial purposes with no derivatives, provided the original work is properly cited ( Funding Information: This research was funded by the GCRF Block Grant Funding, Project Ref:28022. The authors would like to thank the Vice Chancellor, Meru University, Kenya, for his valuable support during the study


  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Pollution
  • Waste Management and Disposal
  • Water Science and Technology
  • Development


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