Production of biodiesel via catalytic upgrading and refining of sustainable oleagineous feedstocks

N.A. Tajuddin, A.F. Lee, K. Wilson

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

Abstract

Depletion of world crude oil reserves has been predicted to occur in less than 10 decades, and despite new discoveries, the use of these fossil fuel resources is not compatible with the challenge of restricting global temperature rises to 2°C. Alternative sources of renewable or low-carbon sustainable energy will thus be essential to meet the demands of a growing population and developing nations. First-generation of biodiesel from edible crops has brought many disputes over land and crops rivalry; however, second-generation biodiesel from nonedible crops has sought to address this problem. Biodiesel, which is ordinarily obtained from vegetable oils or animal fats by transesterification, still has an important role to play in the renewable energy arena. However, current processes whereby the triglycerides react with a short chain alcohol in the presence of a homogeneous catalyst, such as sodium hydroxide, has various drawbacks including saponification, difficulty in isolation, purification, and separation of the catalyst from the fatty acid methyl esters, as well as immiscibility of the catalyst with the reactants and incomplete transesterification. The aim of this review is to give an overview on the current status of biodiesel production using heterogeneous solid acid and base catalysts, which can offer significant process advantages of improved product separation, decreased waste, and also opportunities to work in continuous operation. A particular focus of the review will be on recent robust technology that seeks to overcome mass transfer limitation in bulky oil by designing tailored hierarchical macroporous-mesoporous frameworks and also tuning surface hydrophobicity will be discussed.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationHandbook of biofuels production
Subtitle of host publicationprocesses and technologies
EditorsRafael Luque, Carol Sze Ki Lin, Karen Wilson, James Clark
PublisherElsevier
Pages121-164
Number of pages44
Edition2nd
ISBN (Electronic)978-0-08-00456-2
ISBN (Print)978-0-08-100455-5
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2016

Fingerprint

Biodiesel
Feedstocks
Refining
Crops
Catalysts
Transesterification
Saponification
Vegetable oils
Hydrophobicity
Oils and fats
Fossil fuels
Fatty acids
Purification
Esters
Animals
Alcohols
Mass transfer
Solubility
Crude oil
Tuning

Keywords

  • biodiesel
  • heterogeneous catalysts
  • solid acid
  • solid bases

Cite this

Tajuddin, N. A., Lee, A. F., & Wilson, K. (2016). Production of biodiesel via catalytic upgrading and refining of sustainable oleagineous feedstocks. In R. Luque, C. S. K. Lin, K. Wilson, & J. Clark (Eds.), Handbook of biofuels production: processes and technologies (2nd ed., pp. 121-164). Elsevier. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-08-100455-5.00006-0
Tajuddin, N.A. ; Lee, A.F. ; Wilson, K. / Production of biodiesel via catalytic upgrading and refining of sustainable oleagineous feedstocks. Handbook of biofuels production: processes and technologies. editor / Rafael Luque ; Carol Sze Ki Lin ; Karen Wilson ; James Clark. 2nd. ed. Elsevier, 2016. pp. 121-164
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Tajuddin, NA, Lee, AF & Wilson, K 2016, Production of biodiesel via catalytic upgrading and refining of sustainable oleagineous feedstocks. in R Luque, CSK Lin, K Wilson & J Clark (eds), Handbook of biofuels production: processes and technologies. 2nd edn, Elsevier, pp. 121-164. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-08-100455-5.00006-0

Production of biodiesel via catalytic upgrading and refining of sustainable oleagineous feedstocks. / Tajuddin, N.A.; Lee, A.F.; Wilson, K.

Handbook of biofuels production: processes and technologies. ed. / Rafael Luque; Carol Sze Ki Lin; Karen Wilson; James Clark. 2nd. ed. Elsevier, 2016. p. 121-164.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

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AU - Lee, A.F.

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N2 - Depletion of world crude oil reserves has been predicted to occur in less than 10 decades, and despite new discoveries, the use of these fossil fuel resources is not compatible with the challenge of restricting global temperature rises to 2°C. Alternative sources of renewable or low-carbon sustainable energy will thus be essential to meet the demands of a growing population and developing nations. First-generation of biodiesel from edible crops has brought many disputes over land and crops rivalry; however, second-generation biodiesel from nonedible crops has sought to address this problem. Biodiesel, which is ordinarily obtained from vegetable oils or animal fats by transesterification, still has an important role to play in the renewable energy arena. However, current processes whereby the triglycerides react with a short chain alcohol in the presence of a homogeneous catalyst, such as sodium hydroxide, has various drawbacks including saponification, difficulty in isolation, purification, and separation of the catalyst from the fatty acid methyl esters, as well as immiscibility of the catalyst with the reactants and incomplete transesterification. The aim of this review is to give an overview on the current status of biodiesel production using heterogeneous solid acid and base catalysts, which can offer significant process advantages of improved product separation, decreased waste, and also opportunities to work in continuous operation. A particular focus of the review will be on recent robust technology that seeks to overcome mass transfer limitation in bulky oil by designing tailored hierarchical macroporous-mesoporous frameworks and also tuning surface hydrophobicity will be discussed.

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KW - biodiesel

KW - heterogeneous catalysts

KW - solid acid

KW - solid bases

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SP - 121

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BT - Handbook of biofuels production

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A2 - Clark, James

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Tajuddin NA, Lee AF, Wilson K. Production of biodiesel via catalytic upgrading and refining of sustainable oleagineous feedstocks. In Luque R, Lin CSK, Wilson K, Clark J, editors, Handbook of biofuels production: processes and technologies. 2nd ed. Elsevier. 2016. p. 121-164 https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-08-100455-5.00006-0