Profile of anisometropia and aniso-astigmatism in children; prevalence and association with age, ocular biometric measures, and refractive status

Lisa O'Donoghue, Julie F. McClelland, Nicola S. Logan, Alicja R. Rudnicka, Chris G. Owen, Kathryn J. Saunders

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Purpose. We describe the profile and associations of anisometropia and aniso-astigmatism in a population-based sample of children.
Methods. The Northern Ireland Childhood Errors of Refraction (NICER) study used a stratified random cluster design to recruit a representative sample of children from schools in Northern Ireland. Examinations included cycloplegic (1% cyclopentolate) autorefraction, and measures of axial length, anterior chamber depth, and corneal curvature. ?2 tests were used to assess variations in the prevalence of anisometropia and aniso-astigmatism by age group, with logistic regression used to compare odds of anisometropia and aniso-astigmatism with refractive status (myopia, emmetropia, hyperopia). The Mann-Whitney U test was used to examine interocular differences in ocular biometry.
Results. Data from 661 white children aged 12 to 13 years (50.5% male) and 389 white children aged 6 to 7 years (49.6% male) are presented. The prevalence of anisometropia =1 diopters sphere (DS) did not differ statistically significantly between 6- to 7-year-old (8.5%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.9–13.1) and 12- to 13-year-old (9.4%; 95% CI, 5.9–12.9) children. The prevalence of aniso-astigmatism =1 diopters cylinder (DC) did not vary statistically significantly between 6- to 7-year-old (7.7%; 95% CI, 4.3–11.2) and 12- to 13-year-old (5.6%; 95% CI, 0.5–8.1) children. Anisometropia and aniso-astigmatism were more common in 12- to 13-year-old children with hyperopia =+2 DS. Anisometropic eyes had greater axial length asymmetry than nonanisometropic eyes. Aniso-astigmatic eyes were more asymmetric in axial length and corneal astigmatism than eyes without aniso-astigmatism.
Conclusions. In this population, there is a high prevalence of axial anisometropia and corneal/axial aniso-astigmatism, associated with hyperopia, but whether these relations are causal is unclear. Further work is required to clarify the developmental mechanism behind these associations.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)602-608
Number of pages7
JournalInvestigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science
Volume54
Issue number1
Early online date11 Dec 2012
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 21 Jan 2013

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Anisometropia
Astigmatism
Hyperopia
Confidence Intervals
Northern Ireland
Cyclopentolate
Emmetropia
Biometry
Mydriatics
Myopia
Anterior Chamber
Nonparametric Statistics
Population
Age Groups
Logistic Models

Bibliographical note

Copyright 2013 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.
. Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial No Derivatives License

Cite this

O'Donoghue, Lisa ; McClelland, Julie F. ; Logan, Nicola S. ; Rudnicka, Alicja R. ; Owen, Chris G. ; Saunders, Kathryn J. / Profile of anisometropia and aniso-astigmatism in children; prevalence and association with age, ocular biometric measures, and refractive status. In: Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science. 2013 ; Vol. 54, No. 1. pp. 602-608.
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abstract = "Purpose. We describe the profile and associations of anisometropia and aniso-astigmatism in a population-based sample of children. Methods. The Northern Ireland Childhood Errors of Refraction (NICER) study used a stratified random cluster design to recruit a representative sample of children from schools in Northern Ireland. Examinations included cycloplegic (1{\%} cyclopentolate) autorefraction, and measures of axial length, anterior chamber depth, and corneal curvature. ?2 tests were used to assess variations in the prevalence of anisometropia and aniso-astigmatism by age group, with logistic regression used to compare odds of anisometropia and aniso-astigmatism with refractive status (myopia, emmetropia, hyperopia). The Mann-Whitney U test was used to examine interocular differences in ocular biometry. Results. Data from 661 white children aged 12 to 13 years (50.5{\%} male) and 389 white children aged 6 to 7 years (49.6{\%} male) are presented. The prevalence of anisometropia =1 diopters sphere (DS) did not differ statistically significantly between 6- to 7-year-old (8.5{\%}; 95{\%} confidence interval [CI], 3.9–13.1) and 12- to 13-year-old (9.4{\%}; 95{\%} CI, 5.9–12.9) children. The prevalence of aniso-astigmatism =1 diopters cylinder (DC) did not vary statistically significantly between 6- to 7-year-old (7.7{\%}; 95{\%} CI, 4.3–11.2) and 12- to 13-year-old (5.6{\%}; 95{\%} CI, 0.5–8.1) children. Anisometropia and aniso-astigmatism were more common in 12- to 13-year-old children with hyperopia =+2 DS. Anisometropic eyes had greater axial length asymmetry than nonanisometropic eyes. Aniso-astigmatic eyes were more asymmetric in axial length and corneal astigmatism than eyes without aniso-astigmatism. Conclusions. In this population, there is a high prevalence of axial anisometropia and corneal/axial aniso-astigmatism, associated with hyperopia, but whether these relations are causal is unclear. Further work is required to clarify the developmental mechanism behind these associations.",
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Profile of anisometropia and aniso-astigmatism in children; prevalence and association with age, ocular biometric measures, and refractive status. / O'Donoghue, Lisa; McClelland, Julie F.; Logan, Nicola S.; Rudnicka, Alicja R.; Owen, Chris G.; Saunders, Kathryn J.

In: Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, Vol. 54, No. 1, 21.01.2013, p. 602-608.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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T1 - Profile of anisometropia and aniso-astigmatism in children; prevalence and association with age, ocular biometric measures, and refractive status

AU - O'Donoghue, Lisa

AU - McClelland, Julie F.

AU - Logan, Nicola S.

AU - Rudnicka, Alicja R.

AU - Owen, Chris G.

AU - Saunders, Kathryn J.

N1 - Copyright 2013 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc. . Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial No Derivatives License

PY - 2013/1/21

Y1 - 2013/1/21

N2 - Purpose. We describe the profile and associations of anisometropia and aniso-astigmatism in a population-based sample of children. Methods. The Northern Ireland Childhood Errors of Refraction (NICER) study used a stratified random cluster design to recruit a representative sample of children from schools in Northern Ireland. Examinations included cycloplegic (1% cyclopentolate) autorefraction, and measures of axial length, anterior chamber depth, and corneal curvature. ?2 tests were used to assess variations in the prevalence of anisometropia and aniso-astigmatism by age group, with logistic regression used to compare odds of anisometropia and aniso-astigmatism with refractive status (myopia, emmetropia, hyperopia). The Mann-Whitney U test was used to examine interocular differences in ocular biometry. Results. Data from 661 white children aged 12 to 13 years (50.5% male) and 389 white children aged 6 to 7 years (49.6% male) are presented. The prevalence of anisometropia =1 diopters sphere (DS) did not differ statistically significantly between 6- to 7-year-old (8.5%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.9–13.1) and 12- to 13-year-old (9.4%; 95% CI, 5.9–12.9) children. The prevalence of aniso-astigmatism =1 diopters cylinder (DC) did not vary statistically significantly between 6- to 7-year-old (7.7%; 95% CI, 4.3–11.2) and 12- to 13-year-old (5.6%; 95% CI, 0.5–8.1) children. Anisometropia and aniso-astigmatism were more common in 12- to 13-year-old children with hyperopia =+2 DS. Anisometropic eyes had greater axial length asymmetry than nonanisometropic eyes. Aniso-astigmatic eyes were more asymmetric in axial length and corneal astigmatism than eyes without aniso-astigmatism. Conclusions. In this population, there is a high prevalence of axial anisometropia and corneal/axial aniso-astigmatism, associated with hyperopia, but whether these relations are causal is unclear. Further work is required to clarify the developmental mechanism behind these associations.

AB - Purpose. We describe the profile and associations of anisometropia and aniso-astigmatism in a population-based sample of children. Methods. The Northern Ireland Childhood Errors of Refraction (NICER) study used a stratified random cluster design to recruit a representative sample of children from schools in Northern Ireland. Examinations included cycloplegic (1% cyclopentolate) autorefraction, and measures of axial length, anterior chamber depth, and corneal curvature. ?2 tests were used to assess variations in the prevalence of anisometropia and aniso-astigmatism by age group, with logistic regression used to compare odds of anisometropia and aniso-astigmatism with refractive status (myopia, emmetropia, hyperopia). The Mann-Whitney U test was used to examine interocular differences in ocular biometry. Results. Data from 661 white children aged 12 to 13 years (50.5% male) and 389 white children aged 6 to 7 years (49.6% male) are presented. The prevalence of anisometropia =1 diopters sphere (DS) did not differ statistically significantly between 6- to 7-year-old (8.5%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.9–13.1) and 12- to 13-year-old (9.4%; 95% CI, 5.9–12.9) children. The prevalence of aniso-astigmatism =1 diopters cylinder (DC) did not vary statistically significantly between 6- to 7-year-old (7.7%; 95% CI, 4.3–11.2) and 12- to 13-year-old (5.6%; 95% CI, 0.5–8.1) children. Anisometropia and aniso-astigmatism were more common in 12- to 13-year-old children with hyperopia =+2 DS. Anisometropic eyes had greater axial length asymmetry than nonanisometropic eyes. Aniso-astigmatic eyes were more asymmetric in axial length and corneal astigmatism than eyes without aniso-astigmatism. Conclusions. In this population, there is a high prevalence of axial anisometropia and corneal/axial aniso-astigmatism, associated with hyperopia, but whether these relations are causal is unclear. Further work is required to clarify the developmental mechanism behind these associations.

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