### Abstract

Structural analysis in handwritten mathematical expressions focuses on interpreting the recognized symbols using geometrical information such as relative sizes and positions of the symbols. Most existing approaches rely on hand-crafted grammar rules to identify semantic relationships among the recognized mathematical symbols. They could easily fail when writing errors occurred. Moreover, they assume the availability of the whole mathematical expression before being able to analyze the semantic information of the expression. To tackle these problems, we propose a progressive structural analysis (PSA) approach for dynamic recognition of handwritten mathematical expressions. The proposed PSA approach is able to provide analysis result immediately after each written input symbol. This has an advantage that users are able to detect any recognition errors immediately and correct only the mis-recognized symbols rather than the whole expression. Experiments conducted on 57 most commonly used mathematical expressions have shown that the PSA approach is able to achieve very good performance results.

Original language | English |
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Pages (from-to) | 647-655 |

Number of pages | 9 |

Journal | Pattern Recognition Letters |

Volume | 29 |

Issue number | 5 |

DOIs | |

Publication status | Published - 1 Apr 2008 |

### Bibliographical note

© 2008 IEEE. Personal use of this material is permitted. Permission from IEEE must be obtained for all other uses, in any current or future media, including reprinting/republishing this material for advertising or promotional purposes, creating new collective works, for resale or redistribution to servers or lists, or reuse of any copyrighted component of this work in other works.### Keywords

- progressive structural analysis
- structural analysis
- mathematical expressions recognition
- mathematical expression tree
- grouping determination

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## Cite this

Vuong, B-Q., Hui, S. C., & He, Y. (2008). Progressive structural analysis for dynamic recognition of on-line handwritten mathematical expressions.

*Pattern Recognition Letters*,*29*(5), 647-655. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.patrec.2007.11.017