Proof-of-concept evidence for trimodal simultaneous investigation of human brain function

Matthew Moore*, Edward L. Maclin, Alexandru D. Iordan, Yuta Katsumi, Ryan J. Larsen, Andrew P. Bagshaw, Stephen Mayhew, Andrea T. Shafer, Bradley P. Sutton, Monica Fabiani, Gabriele Gratton*, Florin Dolcos*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The link between spatial (where) and temporal (when) aspects of the neural correlates of most psychological phenomena is not clear. Elucidation of this relation, which is crucial to fully understand human brain function, requires integration across multiple brain imaging modalities and cognitive tasks that reliably modulate the engagement of the brain systems of interest. By overcoming the methodological challenges posed by simultaneous recordings, the present report provides proof-of-concept evidence for a novel approach using three complementary imaging modalities: functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), event-related potentials (ERPs), and event-related optical signals (EROS). Using the emotional oddball task, a paradigm that taps into both cognitive and affective aspects of processing, we show the feasibility of capturing converging and complementary measures of brain function that are not currently attainable using traditional unimodal or other multimodal approaches. This opens up unprecedented possibilities to clarify spatiotemporal integration of brain function.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4102-4121
Number of pages20
JournalHuman Brain Mapping
Issue number13
Early online date23 Jun 2021
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2021

Bibliographical note

Copyright © 2021, The Authors. Human Brain Mapping published by Wiley Periodicals LLC. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs License, which permits use and distribution in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, the use is non-commercial and no modifications or adaptations are made.

Data Access Statement

The data that support the findings of this study are available on request from the corresponding author. The data are not publicly available due to privacy or ethical restrictions.


  • data fusion
  • event-related optical signal (EROS)
  • event-related potentials (ERPs)
  • functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)
  • multimodal neuroimaging
  • simultaneous recording


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