Protein interactions studied by SAXS

effect of ionic strength and protein concentration for BSA in aqueous solutions

Fajun Zhang, Maximilian W.A. Skoda, Robert M.J. Jacobs, Richard A. Martin, Christopher M. Martin, Frank Schreiber

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

We have studied a series of samples of bovine serum albumin (BSA) solutions with protein concentration, c, ranging from 2 to 500 mg/mL and ionic strength, I, from 0 to 2 M by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). The scattering intensity distribution was compared to simulations using an oblate ellipsoid form factor with radii of 17 x 42 x 42 A, combined with either a screened Coulomb, repulsive structure factor, S-SC(q), or an attractive square-well structure factor, S-SW(q). At pH = 7, BSA is negatively charged. At low ionic strength, I <0.3 M, the total interaction exhibits a decrease of the repulsive interaction when compared to the salt-free solution, as the net surface charge is screened, and the data can be fitted by assuming an ellipsoid form factor and screened Coulomb interaction. At moderate ionic strength (0.3-0.5 M), the interaction is rather weak, and a hard-sphere structure factor has been used to simulate the data with a higher volume fraction. Upon further increase of the ionic strength (I >= 1.0 M), the overall interaction potential was dominated by an additional attractive potential, and the data could be successfully fitted by an ellipsoid form factor and a square-well potential model. The fit parameters, well depth and well width, indicate that the attractive potential caused by a high salt concentration is weak and long-ranged. Although the long-range, attractive potential dominated the protein interaction, no gelation or precipitation was observed in any of the samples. This is explained by the increase of a short-range, repulsive interaction between protein molecules by forming a hydration layer with increasing salt concentration. The competition between long-range, attractive and short-range, repulsive interactions accounted for the stability of concentrated BSA solution at high ionic strength.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)251-259
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Physical Chemistry: Part B
Volume111
Issue number1
Early online date10 Dec 2006
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 11 Jan 2007

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Ionic strength
X ray scattering
Proteins
Salts
Gelation
Hydration
Scattering
Molecules

Keywords

  • scattering
  • x-ray scattering
  • blood plasma
  • serum albumin

Cite this

Zhang, Fajun ; Skoda, Maximilian W.A. ; Jacobs, Robert M.J. ; Martin, Richard A. ; Martin, Christopher M. ; Schreiber, Frank. / Protein interactions studied by SAXS : effect of ionic strength and protein concentration for BSA in aqueous solutions. In: Journal of Physical Chemistry: Part B. 2007 ; Vol. 111, No. 1. pp. 251-259.
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abstract = "We have studied a series of samples of bovine serum albumin (BSA) solutions with protein concentration, c, ranging from 2 to 500 mg/mL and ionic strength, I, from 0 to 2 M by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). The scattering intensity distribution was compared to simulations using an oblate ellipsoid form factor with radii of 17 x 42 x 42 A, combined with either a screened Coulomb, repulsive structure factor, S-SC(q), or an attractive square-well structure factor, S-SW(q). At pH = 7, BSA is negatively charged. At low ionic strength, I <0.3 M, the total interaction exhibits a decrease of the repulsive interaction when compared to the salt-free solution, as the net surface charge is screened, and the data can be fitted by assuming an ellipsoid form factor and screened Coulomb interaction. At moderate ionic strength (0.3-0.5 M), the interaction is rather weak, and a hard-sphere structure factor has been used to simulate the data with a higher volume fraction. Upon further increase of the ionic strength (I >= 1.0 M), the overall interaction potential was dominated by an additional attractive potential, and the data could be successfully fitted by an ellipsoid form factor and a square-well potential model. The fit parameters, well depth and well width, indicate that the attractive potential caused by a high salt concentration is weak and long-ranged. Although the long-range, attractive potential dominated the protein interaction, no gelation or precipitation was observed in any of the samples. This is explained by the increase of a short-range, repulsive interaction between protein molecules by forming a hydration layer with increasing salt concentration. The competition between long-range, attractive and short-range, repulsive interactions accounted for the stability of concentrated BSA solution at high ionic strength.",
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Protein interactions studied by SAXS : effect of ionic strength and protein concentration for BSA in aqueous solutions. / Zhang, Fajun; Skoda, Maximilian W.A.; Jacobs, Robert M.J.; Martin, Richard A.; Martin, Christopher M.; Schreiber, Frank.

In: Journal of Physical Chemistry: Part B, Vol. 111, No. 1, 11.01.2007, p. 251-259.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Protein interactions studied by SAXS

T2 - effect of ionic strength and protein concentration for BSA in aqueous solutions

AU - Zhang, Fajun

AU - Skoda, Maximilian W.A.

AU - Jacobs, Robert M.J.

AU - Martin, Richard A.

AU - Martin, Christopher M.

AU - Schreiber, Frank

PY - 2007/1/11

Y1 - 2007/1/11

N2 - We have studied a series of samples of bovine serum albumin (BSA) solutions with protein concentration, c, ranging from 2 to 500 mg/mL and ionic strength, I, from 0 to 2 M by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). The scattering intensity distribution was compared to simulations using an oblate ellipsoid form factor with radii of 17 x 42 x 42 A, combined with either a screened Coulomb, repulsive structure factor, S-SC(q), or an attractive square-well structure factor, S-SW(q). At pH = 7, BSA is negatively charged. At low ionic strength, I <0.3 M, the total interaction exhibits a decrease of the repulsive interaction when compared to the salt-free solution, as the net surface charge is screened, and the data can be fitted by assuming an ellipsoid form factor and screened Coulomb interaction. At moderate ionic strength (0.3-0.5 M), the interaction is rather weak, and a hard-sphere structure factor has been used to simulate the data with a higher volume fraction. Upon further increase of the ionic strength (I >= 1.0 M), the overall interaction potential was dominated by an additional attractive potential, and the data could be successfully fitted by an ellipsoid form factor and a square-well potential model. The fit parameters, well depth and well width, indicate that the attractive potential caused by a high salt concentration is weak and long-ranged. Although the long-range, attractive potential dominated the protein interaction, no gelation or precipitation was observed in any of the samples. This is explained by the increase of a short-range, repulsive interaction between protein molecules by forming a hydration layer with increasing salt concentration. The competition between long-range, attractive and short-range, repulsive interactions accounted for the stability of concentrated BSA solution at high ionic strength.

AB - We have studied a series of samples of bovine serum albumin (BSA) solutions with protein concentration, c, ranging from 2 to 500 mg/mL and ionic strength, I, from 0 to 2 M by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). The scattering intensity distribution was compared to simulations using an oblate ellipsoid form factor with radii of 17 x 42 x 42 A, combined with either a screened Coulomb, repulsive structure factor, S-SC(q), or an attractive square-well structure factor, S-SW(q). At pH = 7, BSA is negatively charged. At low ionic strength, I <0.3 M, the total interaction exhibits a decrease of the repulsive interaction when compared to the salt-free solution, as the net surface charge is screened, and the data can be fitted by assuming an ellipsoid form factor and screened Coulomb interaction. At moderate ionic strength (0.3-0.5 M), the interaction is rather weak, and a hard-sphere structure factor has been used to simulate the data with a higher volume fraction. Upon further increase of the ionic strength (I >= 1.0 M), the overall interaction potential was dominated by an additional attractive potential, and the data could be successfully fitted by an ellipsoid form factor and a square-well potential model. The fit parameters, well depth and well width, indicate that the attractive potential caused by a high salt concentration is weak and long-ranged. Although the long-range, attractive potential dominated the protein interaction, no gelation or precipitation was observed in any of the samples. This is explained by the increase of a short-range, repulsive interaction between protein molecules by forming a hydration layer with increasing salt concentration. The competition between long-range, attractive and short-range, repulsive interactions accounted for the stability of concentrated BSA solution at high ionic strength.

KW - scattering

KW - x-ray scattering

KW - blood plasma

KW - serum albumin

UR - http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/jp0649955

U2 - 10.1021/jp0649955

DO - 10.1021/jp0649955

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VL - 111

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JO - Journal of Physical Chemistry: Part B

JF - Journal of Physical Chemistry: Part B

SN - 1520-6106

IS - 1

ER -