Purification and immobilization of engineered glucose dehydrogenase: A new approach to producing gluconic acid from breadwaste

Pınar Karagoz, Ravneet Mandair, Jinesh C. Manayil, Jai Lad, Katie Chong, Georgios Kyriakou, Adam Lee, Karen Wilson, Roslyn Bill*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background Platform chemicals are essential to industrial processes. Used as starting materials for the manufacture of diverse products, their cheap availability and efficient sourcing are an industrial requirement. Increasing concerns about the depletion of natural resources and growing environmental consciousness have led to a focus on the economics and ecological viability of bio-based platform chemical production. Contemporary approaches include the use of immobilized enzymes that can be harnessed to produce high-value chemicals from waste. Results In this study, an engineered glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) was optimized for gluconic acid (GA) production. Sulfolobus solfataricus GDH was expressed in Escherichia coli. The Km and Vmax values for recombinant GDH were calculated as 0.87 mM and 5.91 U/mg, respectively. Recombinant GDH was immobilized on a hierarchically porous silica support (MM-SBA-15) and its activity was compared with GDH immobilized on three commercially available supports. MM-SBA-15 showed significantly higher immobilization efficiency (> 98%) than the commercial supports. After 5 cycles, GDH activity was at least 14% greater than the remaining activity on commercial supports. Glucose in bread waste hydrolysate was converted to GA by free-state and immobilized GDH. After the 10th reuse cycle on MM-SBA-15, a 22% conversion yield was observed, generating 25 gGA/gGDH. The highest GA production efficiency was 47 gGA/gGDH using free-state GDH. Conclusions This study demonstrates the feasibility of enzymatically converting BWH to GA: immobilizing GDH on MM-SBA-15 renders the enzyme more stable and permits its multiple reuse.
Original languageEnglish
Article number100
JournalBiotechnology for Biofuels
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 3 Jun 2020

Bibliographical note

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Funding: This research was funded by the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) through the Global Challenges Research Fund Project, CAPRI-BIO (BB/P022685/1). RM is supported by a BBSRC training grant with Chemoxy Ltd (BB/M016668/1).


  • Enzyme
  • Immobilization
  • Recombinant protein
  • Waste valorization


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