Raman amplification optimization in short-reach high data rate coherent transmission systems

Mingming Tan*, Md Asif Iqbal, Tu T. Nguyen, Paweł Rosa, Lukasz Krzczanowicz, Ian Phillips, Paul Harper, Wladek Forysiak

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


We compared the transmission performances of 600 Gbit/s PM-64QAM WDM signals over
75.6 km of single-mode fibre (SMF) using EDFA, discrete Raman, hybrid Raman/EDFA, and firstorder or second-order (dual-order) distributed Raman amplifiers. Our numerical simulations and
experimental results showed that the simple first-order distributed Raman scheme with backward
pumping delivered the best transmission performance among all the schemes, notably better than
the expected second-order Raman scheme, which gave a flatter signal power variation along the fibre.
Using the first-order backward Raman pumping scheme demonstrated a better balance between the
ASE noise and fibre nonlinearity and gave an optimal transmission performance over a relatively
short distance of 75 km SMF.
Original languageEnglish
Article number6521
Issue number19
Publication statusPublished - 29 Sept 2021

Bibliographical note

© 2021 by the authors.
Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
This article is an open access article
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Funding: UK Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) Grant EP/S003436/1
(PHOS), EP/V000969/1 (ARGON), Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education Grant 12300060,
and National Natural Science Foundation of China Grant 61975027


  • Optical fibre communication
  • Raman amplification


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