Reactive processing of polymers

functionalisation of ethylene-propylene diene terpolymer (EPDM) in the presence and absence of a co-agent and effect of functionalised EPDM on compatibilisation of poly(ethylene terephthalate)/EPDM blends

Research output: Contribution to journalSpecial issue

Abstract

Ethylene-propylene diene terpolymer (EPDM) was functionalized with glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) during melt processing by free radical grafting with peroxide initiation in the presence and absence of a reactive comonomer trimethylolpropane triacrylate (Tris). Increasing the peroxide concentration resulted in an increase in the GMA grafting yield, albeit the overall grafting level was low and was accompanied by higher degree of crosslinking of EPDM which was found to be the major competing reaction. The presence of Tris in the grafting system gave rise to higher grafting yield produced at a much lower peroxide concentration though the crosslinking reactions remained high but without the formation of GMA-homopolymer in either of the two systems. The use of these functionalized EPDM (f-EPDM) samples with PET as compatibilisers in binary and ternary blends of PET/EPDM/f-EPDM was evaluated. The influence of the different functionalisation routes of the rubber phase (in presence and absence of Tris) and the effect of the level of functionality and microstructure of the resultant f-EPDM on the extent of the interfacial reaction, morphology and mechanical properties was also investigated. It is suggested that the mechanical properties of the blends are strongly influenced by the performance of the graft copolymer, which is in turn, determined by the level of functionality, molecular structure of the functionalized rubber and the interfacial concentration of the graft copolymer across the interface. The cumulative evidence obtained from torque rheometry, scanning electron microscopy, SEM, dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), tensile mechanical tests and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) supports this. It was shown that binary and ternary blends prepared with f-EPDM in the absence of Tris and containing lower levels of g-GMA effected a significant improvement in mechanical properties. This increase, particularly in elongation to break, could be accounted for by the occurrence of a reaction between the epoxy groups of GMA and the hydroxyl/carboxyl end groups of PET that would result in a graft copolymer which could, most probably, preferentially locate at the interface, thereby acting as an 'emulsifier' responsible for decreasing the interfacial tension between the otherwise two immiscible phases. This is supported by results from FTIR analysis of the fractionated PET phase of these blends which confirm the formation of an interfacial reaction, DMA results which show a clear shift in the T s of the blend components and SEM results which reveal very fine morphology, suggesting effective compatibilisation that is concomitant with the improvement observed in their tensile properties. Although Tris has given rise to highest amount of g-GMA, it resulted in lower mechanical properties than the optimized blends produced in the absence of Tris. This was attributed to the difference in the microstructure of the graft and the level of functionality in these samples resulting in less favourable structure responsible for the coarser dispersion of the rubber phase observed by SEM, the lower extent of T shift of the PET phase (DMA), the lower height of the torque curve during reactive blending and FTIR analysis of the separated PET phase that has indicated a lower extent of the interfacial chemical reaction between the phases in this Tris-containing blend sample.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)197-210
Number of pages14
JournalPolymer Degradation and Stability
Volume90
Issue number2
Early online date1 Aug 2005
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2005

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Polyethylenes
Polyethylene Terephthalates
Terpolymers
Compatibilizers
polyethylene terephthalate
dienes
propylene
Polyethylene terephthalates
Propylene
Ethylene
ethylene
Graft copolymers
Dynamic mechanical analysis
Peroxides
Rubber
polymers
Polymers
Processing
Mechanical properties
Fourier transforms

Keywords

  • reactive processing
  • reactive blending
  • PET/EPDM blends

Cite this

@article{9bac9d8759d9460aa3efa6ac410098fb,
title = "Reactive processing of polymers: functionalisation of ethylene-propylene diene terpolymer (EPDM) in the presence and absence of a co-agent and effect of functionalised EPDM on compatibilisation of poly(ethylene terephthalate)/EPDM blends",
abstract = "Ethylene-propylene diene terpolymer (EPDM) was functionalized with glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) during melt processing by free radical grafting with peroxide initiation in the presence and absence of a reactive comonomer trimethylolpropane triacrylate (Tris). Increasing the peroxide concentration resulted in an increase in the GMA grafting yield, albeit the overall grafting level was low and was accompanied by higher degree of crosslinking of EPDM which was found to be the major competing reaction. The presence of Tris in the grafting system gave rise to higher grafting yield produced at a much lower peroxide concentration though the crosslinking reactions remained high but without the formation of GMA-homopolymer in either of the two systems. The use of these functionalized EPDM (f-EPDM) samples with PET as compatibilisers in binary and ternary blends of PET/EPDM/f-EPDM was evaluated. The influence of the different functionalisation routes of the rubber phase (in presence and absence of Tris) and the effect of the level of functionality and microstructure of the resultant f-EPDM on the extent of the interfacial reaction, morphology and mechanical properties was also investigated. It is suggested that the mechanical properties of the blends are strongly influenced by the performance of the graft copolymer, which is in turn, determined by the level of functionality, molecular structure of the functionalized rubber and the interfacial concentration of the graft copolymer across the interface. The cumulative evidence obtained from torque rheometry, scanning electron microscopy, SEM, dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), tensile mechanical tests and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) supports this. It was shown that binary and ternary blends prepared with f-EPDM in the absence of Tris and containing lower levels of g-GMA effected a significant improvement in mechanical properties. This increase, particularly in elongation to break, could be accounted for by the occurrence of a reaction between the epoxy groups of GMA and the hydroxyl/carboxyl end groups of PET that would result in a graft copolymer which could, most probably, preferentially locate at the interface, thereby acting as an 'emulsifier' responsible for decreasing the interfacial tension between the otherwise two immiscible phases. This is supported by results from FTIR analysis of the fractionated PET phase of these blends which confirm the formation of an interfacial reaction, DMA results which show a clear shift in the T s of the blend components and SEM results which reveal very fine morphology, suggesting effective compatibilisation that is concomitant with the improvement observed in their tensile properties. Although Tris has given rise to highest amount of g-GMA, it resulted in lower mechanical properties than the optimized blends produced in the absence of Tris. This was attributed to the difference in the microstructure of the graft and the level of functionality in these samples resulting in less favourable structure responsible for the coarser dispersion of the rubber phase observed by SEM, the lower extent of T shift of the PET phase (DMA), the lower height of the torque curve during reactive blending and FTIR analysis of the separated PET phase that has indicated a lower extent of the interfacial chemical reaction between the phases in this Tris-containing blend sample.",
keywords = "reactive processing, reactive blending, PET/EPDM blends",
author = "Sahar Al-Malaika and Wei Kong",
note = "Copyright 2008 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.",
year = "2005",
month = "11",
doi = "10.1016/j.polymdegradstab.2005.03.017",
language = "English",
volume = "90",
pages = "197--210",
journal = "Polymer Degradation and Stability",
issn = "0141-3910",
publisher = "Elsevier",
number = "2",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Reactive processing of polymers

T2 - functionalisation of ethylene-propylene diene terpolymer (EPDM) in the presence and absence of a co-agent and effect of functionalised EPDM on compatibilisation of poly(ethylene terephthalate)/EPDM blends

AU - Al-Malaika, Sahar

AU - Kong, Wei

N1 - Copyright 2008 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.

PY - 2005/11

Y1 - 2005/11

N2 - Ethylene-propylene diene terpolymer (EPDM) was functionalized with glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) during melt processing by free radical grafting with peroxide initiation in the presence and absence of a reactive comonomer trimethylolpropane triacrylate (Tris). Increasing the peroxide concentration resulted in an increase in the GMA grafting yield, albeit the overall grafting level was low and was accompanied by higher degree of crosslinking of EPDM which was found to be the major competing reaction. The presence of Tris in the grafting system gave rise to higher grafting yield produced at a much lower peroxide concentration though the crosslinking reactions remained high but without the formation of GMA-homopolymer in either of the two systems. The use of these functionalized EPDM (f-EPDM) samples with PET as compatibilisers in binary and ternary blends of PET/EPDM/f-EPDM was evaluated. The influence of the different functionalisation routes of the rubber phase (in presence and absence of Tris) and the effect of the level of functionality and microstructure of the resultant f-EPDM on the extent of the interfacial reaction, morphology and mechanical properties was also investigated. It is suggested that the mechanical properties of the blends are strongly influenced by the performance of the graft copolymer, which is in turn, determined by the level of functionality, molecular structure of the functionalized rubber and the interfacial concentration of the graft copolymer across the interface. The cumulative evidence obtained from torque rheometry, scanning electron microscopy, SEM, dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), tensile mechanical tests and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) supports this. It was shown that binary and ternary blends prepared with f-EPDM in the absence of Tris and containing lower levels of g-GMA effected a significant improvement in mechanical properties. This increase, particularly in elongation to break, could be accounted for by the occurrence of a reaction between the epoxy groups of GMA and the hydroxyl/carboxyl end groups of PET that would result in a graft copolymer which could, most probably, preferentially locate at the interface, thereby acting as an 'emulsifier' responsible for decreasing the interfacial tension between the otherwise two immiscible phases. This is supported by results from FTIR analysis of the fractionated PET phase of these blends which confirm the formation of an interfacial reaction, DMA results which show a clear shift in the T s of the blend components and SEM results which reveal very fine morphology, suggesting effective compatibilisation that is concomitant with the improvement observed in their tensile properties. Although Tris has given rise to highest amount of g-GMA, it resulted in lower mechanical properties than the optimized blends produced in the absence of Tris. This was attributed to the difference in the microstructure of the graft and the level of functionality in these samples resulting in less favourable structure responsible for the coarser dispersion of the rubber phase observed by SEM, the lower extent of T shift of the PET phase (DMA), the lower height of the torque curve during reactive blending and FTIR analysis of the separated PET phase that has indicated a lower extent of the interfacial chemical reaction between the phases in this Tris-containing blend sample.

AB - Ethylene-propylene diene terpolymer (EPDM) was functionalized with glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) during melt processing by free radical grafting with peroxide initiation in the presence and absence of a reactive comonomer trimethylolpropane triacrylate (Tris). Increasing the peroxide concentration resulted in an increase in the GMA grafting yield, albeit the overall grafting level was low and was accompanied by higher degree of crosslinking of EPDM which was found to be the major competing reaction. The presence of Tris in the grafting system gave rise to higher grafting yield produced at a much lower peroxide concentration though the crosslinking reactions remained high but without the formation of GMA-homopolymer in either of the two systems. The use of these functionalized EPDM (f-EPDM) samples with PET as compatibilisers in binary and ternary blends of PET/EPDM/f-EPDM was evaluated. The influence of the different functionalisation routes of the rubber phase (in presence and absence of Tris) and the effect of the level of functionality and microstructure of the resultant f-EPDM on the extent of the interfacial reaction, morphology and mechanical properties was also investigated. It is suggested that the mechanical properties of the blends are strongly influenced by the performance of the graft copolymer, which is in turn, determined by the level of functionality, molecular structure of the functionalized rubber and the interfacial concentration of the graft copolymer across the interface. The cumulative evidence obtained from torque rheometry, scanning electron microscopy, SEM, dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), tensile mechanical tests and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) supports this. It was shown that binary and ternary blends prepared with f-EPDM in the absence of Tris and containing lower levels of g-GMA effected a significant improvement in mechanical properties. This increase, particularly in elongation to break, could be accounted for by the occurrence of a reaction between the epoxy groups of GMA and the hydroxyl/carboxyl end groups of PET that would result in a graft copolymer which could, most probably, preferentially locate at the interface, thereby acting as an 'emulsifier' responsible for decreasing the interfacial tension between the otherwise two immiscible phases. This is supported by results from FTIR analysis of the fractionated PET phase of these blends which confirm the formation of an interfacial reaction, DMA results which show a clear shift in the T s of the blend components and SEM results which reveal very fine morphology, suggesting effective compatibilisation that is concomitant with the improvement observed in their tensile properties. Although Tris has given rise to highest amount of g-GMA, it resulted in lower mechanical properties than the optimized blends produced in the absence of Tris. This was attributed to the difference in the microstructure of the graft and the level of functionality in these samples resulting in less favourable structure responsible for the coarser dispersion of the rubber phase observed by SEM, the lower extent of T shift of the PET phase (DMA), the lower height of the torque curve during reactive blending and FTIR analysis of the separated PET phase that has indicated a lower extent of the interfacial chemical reaction between the phases in this Tris-containing blend sample.

KW - reactive processing

KW - reactive blending

KW - PET/EPDM blends

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U2 - 10.1016/j.polymdegradstab.2005.03.017

DO - 10.1016/j.polymdegradstab.2005.03.017

M3 - Special issue

VL - 90

SP - 197

EP - 210

JO - Polymer Degradation and Stability

JF - Polymer Degradation and Stability

SN - 0141-3910

IS - 2

ER -