Reactor design and its impact on performance and products

Yassir T. Makkawi*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book/Published conference outputChapter (peer-reviewed)peer-review


This chapter discusses engineering design and performance of various types of biomass transformation reactors. These reactors vary in their operating principle depending on the processing capacity and the nature of the desired end product, that is, gas, chemicals or liquid bio-oil. Mass balance around a thermal conversion reactor is usually carried out to identify the degree of conversion and obtain the amount of the various components in the product. The energy balance around the reactors is essential for determining the optimum reactor temperature and the amount of heat required to complete the overall reactions. Experimental and pilot-plant testing is essential for proper reactor design. However, it is common practice to use correlation and valid parameter values in determining the realistic reactor dimensions and configurations. Despite the recent progress in thermochemical conversion technology, reactor performance and scale up potential are the subjects of continuing research.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationTransformation of biomass
Subtitle of host publicationtheory to practice
EditorsAndreas Hornung
Place of PublicationChichester (UK)
Number of pages38
ISBN (Print)978-1-118-69364-3, 978-1-119-97327-0
Publication statusPublished - 5 Sept 2014


  • energy balance
  • mass balance
  • reactor configuration
  • reactor design
  • reactor performance
  • reactor sizing
  • thermochemical conversion reactors


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