Reducing suffering in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE)

Sarah Wolfensohn, Penny Hawkins, Elliot Lilley*, Daniel Anthony, Charles Chambers, Sarah Lane, Martin Lawton, Hanna-Marja Voipio, Gavin Woodhall

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This report is based on discussions and submissions from an expert working group consisting of veterinarians, animal care staff and scientists with expert knowledge relevant to the field. It aims to facilitate the implementation of the Three Rs (replacement, reduction and refinement) in the use of animal models or procedures involving experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an experimental model used in multiple sclerosis research. The emphasis is on refinement since this has the greatest potential for immediate implementation. Specific welfare issues are identified and discussed, and practical measures are proposed to reduce animal use and suffering. Some general issues for refinement are summarised to help achieve this, with more detail provided on a range of specific measures to reduce suffering. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)169-176
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - May 2013


  • animal models
  • multiple sclerosis
  • experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis
  • three Rs
  • refinement
  • animal welfare


Dive into the research topics of 'Reducing suffering in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE)'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this