Relationship between sunlight and the age of onset of bipolar disorder: an international multisite study

Michael Bauer, Tasha Glenn, Martin Alda, Ole A. Andreassen, Elias Angelopoulos, Raffaella Ardau, Christopher Baethge, Rita Bauer, Frank Bellivier, Robert H. Belmaker, Michael Berk, Thomas D. Bjella, Letizia Bossini, Yuly Bersudsky, Eric Yat Wo Cheung, Jörn Conell, Maria del Zompo, Seetal Dodd, Bruno Etain, Andrea FagioliniMark A. Frye, Kostas N. Fountoulakis, Jade Garneau-Fournier, Ana González-Pinto, Hirohiko Harima, Stefanie Hassel, Chantal Henry, Apostolos Iacovides, Erkki T. Isometsä, Flávio Kapczinski, Sebastian Kliwicki, Barbara König, Rikke Krogh, Mauricio Kunz, Beny Lafer, Erik R. Larsen, Ute Lewitzka, Carlos Lopez-Jaramillo, Glenda MacQueen, Mirko Manchia, Wendy Marsh, Mónica Martinez-Cengotitabengoa, Ingrid Melle, Scott Monteith, Gunnar Morken, Rodrigo Munoz, Fabiano G. Nery, Claire O'Donovan, Yamima Osher, Andrea Pfennig, Danilo Quiroz, Raj Ramesar, Natalie Rasgon, Andreas Reif, Philipp Ritter, Janusz K. Rybakowski, Kemal Sagduyu, Ângela M. Scippa, Emanuel Severus, Christian Simhandl, Dan J. Stein, Sergio Strejilevich, Ahmad Hatim Sulaiman, Kirsi Suominen, Hiromi Tagata, Yoshitaka Tatebayashi, Carla Torrent, Eduard Vieta, Biju Viswanath, Mihir J. Wanchoo, Mark Zetin, Peter C. Whybrow

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Background - The onset of bipolar disorder is influenced by the interaction of genetic and environmental factors. We previously found that a large increase in sunlight in springtime was associated with a lower age of onset. This study extends this analysis with more collection sites at diverse locations, and includes family history and polarity of first episode.
Methods - Data from 4037 patients with bipolar I disorder were collected at 36 collection sites in 23 countries at latitudes spanning 3.2 north (N) to 63.4 N and 38.2 south (S) of the equator. The age of onset of the first episode, onset location, family history of mood disorders, and polarity of first episode were obtained retrospectively, from patient records and/or direct interview. Solar insolation data were obtained for the onset locations.
Results - There was a large, significant inverse relationship between maximum monthly increase in solar insolation and age of onset, controlling for the country median age and the birth cohort. The effect was reduced by half if there was no family history. The maximum monthly increase in solar insolation occurred in springtime. The effect was one-third smaller for initial episodes of mania than depression. The largest maximum monthly increase in solar insolation occurred in northern latitudes such as Oslo, Norway, and warm and dry areas such as Los Angeles, California.
Limitations - Recall bias for onset and family history data.
Conclusions - A large springtime increase in sunlight may have an important influence on the onset of bipolar disorder, especially in those with a family history of mood disorders.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)104-111
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Affective Disorders
Volume167
Early online date29 May 2014
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Oct 2014

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Sunlight
Bipolar Disorder
Age of Onset
Mood Disorders
Los Angeles
Norway
Parturition
Interviews
Depression

Keywords

  • bipolar disorder
  • sunlight
  • insolation
  • age of onset

Cite this

Bauer, M., Glenn, T., Alda, M., Andreassen, O. A., Angelopoulos, E., Ardau, R., ... Whybrow, P. C. (2014). Relationship between sunlight and the age of onset of bipolar disorder: an international multisite study. Journal of Affective Disorders, 167, 104-111. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2014.05.032
Bauer, Michael ; Glenn, Tasha ; Alda, Martin ; Andreassen, Ole A. ; Angelopoulos, Elias ; Ardau, Raffaella ; Baethge, Christopher ; Bauer, Rita ; Bellivier, Frank ; Belmaker, Robert H. ; Berk, Michael ; Bjella, Thomas D. ; Bossini, Letizia ; Bersudsky, Yuly ; Cheung, Eric Yat Wo ; Conell, Jörn ; del Zompo, Maria ; Dodd, Seetal ; Etain, Bruno ; Fagiolini, Andrea ; Frye, Mark A. ; Fountoulakis, Kostas N. ; Garneau-Fournier, Jade ; González-Pinto, Ana ; Harima, Hirohiko ; Hassel, Stefanie ; Henry, Chantal ; Iacovides, Apostolos ; Isometsä, Erkki T. ; Kapczinski, Flávio ; Kliwicki, Sebastian ; König, Barbara ; Krogh, Rikke ; Kunz, Mauricio ; Lafer, Beny ; Larsen, Erik R. ; Lewitzka, Ute ; Lopez-Jaramillo, Carlos ; MacQueen, Glenda ; Manchia, Mirko ; Marsh, Wendy ; Martinez-Cengotitabengoa, Mónica ; Melle, Ingrid ; Monteith, Scott ; Morken, Gunnar ; Munoz, Rodrigo ; Nery, Fabiano G. ; O'Donovan, Claire ; Osher, Yamima ; Pfennig, Andrea ; Quiroz, Danilo ; Ramesar, Raj ; Rasgon, Natalie ; Reif, Andreas ; Ritter, Philipp ; Rybakowski, Janusz K. ; Sagduyu, Kemal ; Scippa, Ângela M. ; Severus, Emanuel ; Simhandl, Christian ; Stein, Dan J. ; Strejilevich, Sergio ; Hatim Sulaiman, Ahmad ; Suominen, Kirsi ; Tagata, Hiromi ; Tatebayashi, Yoshitaka ; Torrent, Carla ; Vieta, Eduard ; Viswanath, Biju ; Wanchoo, Mihir J. ; Zetin, Mark ; Whybrow, Peter C. / Relationship between sunlight and the age of onset of bipolar disorder : an international multisite study. In: Journal of Affective Disorders. 2014 ; Vol. 167. pp. 104-111.
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abstract = "Background - The onset of bipolar disorder is influenced by the interaction of genetic and environmental factors. We previously found that a large increase in sunlight in springtime was associated with a lower age of onset. This study extends this analysis with more collection sites at diverse locations, and includes family history and polarity of first episode.Methods - Data from 4037 patients with bipolar I disorder were collected at 36 collection sites in 23 countries at latitudes spanning 3.2 north (N) to 63.4 N and 38.2 south (S) of the equator. The age of onset of the first episode, onset location, family history of mood disorders, and polarity of first episode were obtained retrospectively, from patient records and/or direct interview. Solar insolation data were obtained for the onset locations.Results - There was a large, significant inverse relationship between maximum monthly increase in solar insolation and age of onset, controlling for the country median age and the birth cohort. The effect was reduced by half if there was no family history. The maximum monthly increase in solar insolation occurred in springtime. The effect was one-third smaller for initial episodes of mania than depression. The largest maximum monthly increase in solar insolation occurred in northern latitudes such as Oslo, Norway, and warm and dry areas such as Los Angeles, California.Limitations - Recall bias for onset and family history data.Conclusions - A large springtime increase in sunlight may have an important influence on the onset of bipolar disorder, especially in those with a family history of mood disorders.",
keywords = "bipolar disorder, sunlight, insolation, age of onset",
author = "Michael Bauer and Tasha Glenn and Martin Alda and Andreassen, {Ole A.} and Elias Angelopoulos and Raffaella Ardau and Christopher Baethge and Rita Bauer and Frank Bellivier and Belmaker, {Robert H.} and Michael Berk and Bjella, {Thomas D.} and Letizia Bossini and Yuly Bersudsky and Cheung, {Eric Yat Wo} and J{\"o}rn Conell and {del Zompo}, Maria and Seetal Dodd and Bruno Etain and Andrea Fagiolini and Frye, {Mark A.} and Fountoulakis, {Kostas N.} and Jade Garneau-Fournier and Ana Gonz{\'a}lez-Pinto and Hirohiko Harima and Stefanie Hassel and Chantal Henry and Apostolos Iacovides and Isomets{\"a}, {Erkki T.} and Fl{\'a}vio Kapczinski and Sebastian Kliwicki and Barbara K{\"o}nig and Rikke Krogh and Mauricio Kunz and Beny Lafer and Larsen, {Erik R.} and Ute Lewitzka and Carlos Lopez-Jaramillo and Glenda MacQueen and Mirko Manchia and Wendy Marsh and M{\'o}nica Martinez-Cengotitabengoa and Ingrid Melle and Scott Monteith and Gunnar Morken and Rodrigo Munoz and Nery, {Fabiano G.} and Claire O'Donovan and Yamima Osher and Andrea Pfennig and Danilo Quiroz and Raj Ramesar and Natalie Rasgon and Andreas Reif and Philipp Ritter and Rybakowski, {Janusz K.} and Kemal Sagduyu and Scippa, {{\^A}ngela M.} and Emanuel Severus and Christian Simhandl and Stein, {Dan J.} and Sergio Strejilevich and {Hatim Sulaiman}, Ahmad and Kirsi Suominen and Hiromi Tagata and Yoshitaka Tatebayashi and Carla Torrent and Eduard Vieta and Biju Viswanath and Wanchoo, {Mihir J.} and Mark Zetin and Whybrow, {Peter C.}",
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Bauer, M, Glenn, T, Alda, M, Andreassen, OA, Angelopoulos, E, Ardau, R, Baethge, C, Bauer, R, Bellivier, F, Belmaker, RH, Berk, M, Bjella, TD, Bossini, L, Bersudsky, Y, Cheung, EYW, Conell, J, del Zompo, M, Dodd, S, Etain, B, Fagiolini, A, Frye, MA, Fountoulakis, KN, Garneau-Fournier, J, González-Pinto, A, Harima, H, Hassel, S, Henry, C, Iacovides, A, Isometsä, ET, Kapczinski, F, Kliwicki, S, König, B, Krogh, R, Kunz, M, Lafer, B, Larsen, ER, Lewitzka, U, Lopez-Jaramillo, C, MacQueen, G, Manchia, M, Marsh, W, Martinez-Cengotitabengoa, M, Melle, I, Monteith, S, Morken, G, Munoz, R, Nery, FG, O'Donovan, C, Osher, Y, Pfennig, A, Quiroz, D, Ramesar, R, Rasgon, N, Reif, A, Ritter, P, Rybakowski, JK, Sagduyu, K, Scippa, ÂM, Severus, E, Simhandl, C, Stein, DJ, Strejilevich, S, Hatim Sulaiman, A, Suominen, K, Tagata, H, Tatebayashi, Y, Torrent, C, Vieta, E, Viswanath, B, Wanchoo, MJ, Zetin, M & Whybrow, PC 2014, 'Relationship between sunlight and the age of onset of bipolar disorder: an international multisite study', Journal of Affective Disorders, vol. 167, pp. 104-111. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2014.05.032

Relationship between sunlight and the age of onset of bipolar disorder : an international multisite study. / Bauer, Michael; Glenn, Tasha; Alda, Martin ; Andreassen, Ole A.; Angelopoulos, Elias; Ardau, Raffaella; Baethge, Christopher; Bauer, Rita; Bellivier, Frank; Belmaker, Robert H.; Berk, Michael; Bjella, Thomas D.; Bossini, Letizia; Bersudsky, Yuly; Cheung, Eric Yat Wo; Conell, Jörn; del Zompo, Maria; Dodd, Seetal; Etain, Bruno; Fagiolini, Andrea; Frye, Mark A.; Fountoulakis, Kostas N.; Garneau-Fournier, Jade; González-Pinto, Ana; Harima, Hirohiko; Hassel, Stefanie; Henry, Chantal; Iacovides, Apostolos; Isometsä, Erkki T.; Kapczinski, Flávio; Kliwicki, Sebastian; König, Barbara; Krogh, Rikke; Kunz, Mauricio; Lafer, Beny; Larsen, Erik R.; Lewitzka, Ute; Lopez-Jaramillo, Carlos; MacQueen, Glenda; Manchia, Mirko; Marsh, Wendy; Martinez-Cengotitabengoa, Mónica; Melle, Ingrid; Monteith, Scott; Morken, Gunnar; Munoz, Rodrigo; Nery, Fabiano G.; O'Donovan, Claire; Osher, Yamima; Pfennig, Andrea; Quiroz, Danilo; Ramesar, Raj; Rasgon, Natalie; Reif, Andreas; Ritter, Philipp; Rybakowski, Janusz K.; Sagduyu, Kemal; Scippa, Ângela M.; Severus, Emanuel; Simhandl, Christian; Stein, Dan J.; Strejilevich, Sergio; Hatim Sulaiman, Ahmad; Suominen, Kirsi; Tagata, Hiromi; Tatebayashi, Yoshitaka; Torrent, Carla; Vieta, Eduard; Viswanath, Biju; Wanchoo, Mihir J.; Zetin, Mark; Whybrow, Peter C.

In: Journal of Affective Disorders, Vol. 167, 01.10.2014, p. 104-111.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Relationship between sunlight and the age of onset of bipolar disorder

T2 - an international multisite study

AU - Bauer, Michael

AU - Glenn, Tasha

AU - Alda, Martin

AU - Andreassen, Ole A.

AU - Angelopoulos, Elias

AU - Ardau, Raffaella

AU - Baethge, Christopher

AU - Bauer, Rita

AU - Bellivier, Frank

AU - Belmaker, Robert H.

AU - Berk, Michael

AU - Bjella, Thomas D.

AU - Bossini, Letizia

AU - Bersudsky, Yuly

AU - Cheung, Eric Yat Wo

AU - Conell, Jörn

AU - del Zompo, Maria

AU - Dodd, Seetal

AU - Etain, Bruno

AU - Fagiolini, Andrea

AU - Frye, Mark A.

AU - Fountoulakis, Kostas N.

AU - Garneau-Fournier, Jade

AU - González-Pinto, Ana

AU - Harima, Hirohiko

AU - Hassel, Stefanie

AU - Henry, Chantal

AU - Iacovides, Apostolos

AU - Isometsä, Erkki T.

AU - Kapczinski, Flávio

AU - Kliwicki, Sebastian

AU - König, Barbara

AU - Krogh, Rikke

AU - Kunz, Mauricio

AU - Lafer, Beny

AU - Larsen, Erik R.

AU - Lewitzka, Ute

AU - Lopez-Jaramillo, Carlos

AU - MacQueen, Glenda

AU - Manchia, Mirko

AU - Marsh, Wendy

AU - Martinez-Cengotitabengoa, Mónica

AU - Melle, Ingrid

AU - Monteith, Scott

AU - Morken, Gunnar

AU - Munoz, Rodrigo

AU - Nery, Fabiano G.

AU - O'Donovan, Claire

AU - Osher, Yamima

AU - Pfennig, Andrea

AU - Quiroz, Danilo

AU - Ramesar, Raj

AU - Rasgon, Natalie

AU - Reif, Andreas

AU - Ritter, Philipp

AU - Rybakowski, Janusz K.

AU - Sagduyu, Kemal

AU - Scippa, Ângela M.

AU - Severus, Emanuel

AU - Simhandl, Christian

AU - Stein, Dan J.

AU - Strejilevich, Sergio

AU - Hatim Sulaiman, Ahmad

AU - Suominen, Kirsi

AU - Tagata, Hiromi

AU - Tatebayashi, Yoshitaka

AU - Torrent, Carla

AU - Vieta, Eduard

AU - Viswanath, Biju

AU - Wanchoo, Mihir J.

AU - Zetin, Mark

AU - Whybrow, Peter C.

PY - 2014/10/1

Y1 - 2014/10/1

N2 - Background - The onset of bipolar disorder is influenced by the interaction of genetic and environmental factors. We previously found that a large increase in sunlight in springtime was associated with a lower age of onset. This study extends this analysis with more collection sites at diverse locations, and includes family history and polarity of first episode.Methods - Data from 4037 patients with bipolar I disorder were collected at 36 collection sites in 23 countries at latitudes spanning 3.2 north (N) to 63.4 N and 38.2 south (S) of the equator. The age of onset of the first episode, onset location, family history of mood disorders, and polarity of first episode were obtained retrospectively, from patient records and/or direct interview. Solar insolation data were obtained for the onset locations.Results - There was a large, significant inverse relationship between maximum monthly increase in solar insolation and age of onset, controlling for the country median age and the birth cohort. The effect was reduced by half if there was no family history. The maximum monthly increase in solar insolation occurred in springtime. The effect was one-third smaller for initial episodes of mania than depression. The largest maximum monthly increase in solar insolation occurred in northern latitudes such as Oslo, Norway, and warm and dry areas such as Los Angeles, California.Limitations - Recall bias for onset and family history data.Conclusions - A large springtime increase in sunlight may have an important influence on the onset of bipolar disorder, especially in those with a family history of mood disorders.

AB - Background - The onset of bipolar disorder is influenced by the interaction of genetic and environmental factors. We previously found that a large increase in sunlight in springtime was associated with a lower age of onset. This study extends this analysis with more collection sites at diverse locations, and includes family history and polarity of first episode.Methods - Data from 4037 patients with bipolar I disorder were collected at 36 collection sites in 23 countries at latitudes spanning 3.2 north (N) to 63.4 N and 38.2 south (S) of the equator. The age of onset of the first episode, onset location, family history of mood disorders, and polarity of first episode were obtained retrospectively, from patient records and/or direct interview. Solar insolation data were obtained for the onset locations.Results - There was a large, significant inverse relationship between maximum monthly increase in solar insolation and age of onset, controlling for the country median age and the birth cohort. The effect was reduced by half if there was no family history. The maximum monthly increase in solar insolation occurred in springtime. The effect was one-third smaller for initial episodes of mania than depression. The largest maximum monthly increase in solar insolation occurred in northern latitudes such as Oslo, Norway, and warm and dry areas such as Los Angeles, California.Limitations - Recall bias for onset and family history data.Conclusions - A large springtime increase in sunlight may have an important influence on the onset of bipolar disorder, especially in those with a family history of mood disorders.

KW - bipolar disorder

KW - sunlight

KW - insolation

KW - age of onset

U2 - 10.1016/j.jad.2014.05.032

DO - 10.1016/j.jad.2014.05.032

M3 - Article

C2 - 24953482

VL - 167

SP - 104

EP - 111

JO - Journal of Affective Disorders

JF - Journal of Affective Disorders

SN - 0165-0327

ER -