Design. Retrospective study.
Purpose. To assess whether there are changes in foveal thickness (FT) and total macular volume (TMV) in pregnancy in diabetic subjects.
Methods. The audit consisted of pregnant women with diabetes, with no maculopathy, who completed their antenatal care at Birmingham Heartlands Hospital. The Zeiss Stratus Optical coherence tomography (OCT) was performed on patients attending diabetic retinopathy (DR) screening at intervals throughout their pregnancy. To be included in the audit patients had to have at least one OCT scan during their pregnancy.
Results. Altogether there were 8 type 1 and 22 type 2 patients with mean diabetes duration of 6 years (range 1-20). Mean gestation at DR screening with OCT during the first trimester was 9.7 weeks (6-13) (n=22). The mean and standard deviation for FT for the right was 179.1 µm ± 21.49 and for the left eye was 187.3 µm ± 23.55. The mean TMV was right 6.43 µm ± 0.35 and left 6.50 µm ± 0.39. The mean gestation at DR screening with OCT during the second trimester was 23.4 weeks (18-26) (n=25). The mean FT for the right was 191.4 µm ± 22.70 and the left 195.6 µm ± 24.77. The mean TMV was right 6.74 µm ± 0.45 and left 6.91 µm ± 0.35. The gestation of DR screening with OCT during the third trimester was 31.1 weeks (27-36) (n=15). The mean FT for the right was 181.5 µm ± 24.84 and for the left 193.1 µm ± 28.55. The mean TMV was right 6.80 µm ± 0.40 and left 6.84 µm ± 0.31. There were no significant differences in FT over the 3 trimesters. The TMV showed a significant difference when comparing the first and second trimesters (p<0.05). However, there was no significant statistical difference in TMV in the second and third trimesters. None of the patients showed any macula edema on the OCT.
Conclusions. The results suggest there is no significant change in foveal thickness in pregnancy in diabetic subjects. There was a significant statistical difference in total macular volume in the second trimester; however, this would not be clinically significant. This is an important observation proven by the OCT which has not been previously studied.