Glaucoma is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by the progressive loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). Elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) is a primary risk factor for the development and progression of glaucoma. Rodent models of glaucoma have greatly improved our understanding of the pathophysiology of glaucoma and served as a useful tool to investigate neuroprotective agents. An ideal glaucoma animal model should be easy to induce, reproducible, biologically plausible and predictable. Of the available animal models of glaucoma, rodents are commonly studied because they have a relatively short life span and can be genetically altered. A successful hypertensive glaucoma model should induce structural glaucomatous changes: including loss of retinal nerve fibres, retinal ganglion cells and optic-disc cupping along with IOP elevation. The level and duration of IOP elevation should be titratable depending on the targeted glaucomatous damage. This review summarizes the outcomes of induced rodent hypertensive glaucoma models including intracameral injection of microbeads, laser photocoagulation, episcleral vein cauterization, injection of hypertonic saline and hyaluronic acid. We aim to provide a detailed overview of each of the models with a focus on parameters that defines a successful glaucoma model. The induced IOP elevation and duration of elevation varied among the different models and strain of rodent; nonetheless, they all achieved a sustainable raised IOP with corresponding RGC loss. The limitations of each model are discussed.
Bibliographical note© 2018 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd
- elevated intraocular pressure model
- experimental glaucoma model
- hypertensive glaucoma model
- rodent glaucoma model