Risk factors for Alzheimer's disease

Richard Armstrong

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter (peer-reviewed)

Abstract

A large number of possible risk factors have been associated with Alzheimer'sdisease (AD).This chapter discusses the validity of the major risk factors that have been identifiedincluding age, genetics, exposure to aluminum, head injury, malnutrition and diet,mitochondrial dysfunction, vascular disease, immune system dysfunction, and infectionand proposes a hypothesis to explain how these various risk factors may cause ADpathology.Rare forms of early-onset familial AD (FAD) are strongly linked to the presence ofspecific gene mutations, viz. mutations in amyloid precursor protein (APP) andpresenilin (PSEN1/2) genes. By contrast, late-onset sporadic AD (SAD) is amultifactorial disorder in which age-related changes, genetic risk factors, such as allelicvariation in apolipoprotein E (Apo E) gene, vascular disease, head injury and risk factorsassociated with diet, immune system, mitochondrial function, and infection may all beinvolved.These risk factors interact to increase the rate of normal aging (=allostatic load')which over a lifetime results in degeneration of neurons and blood vessels and as aconsequence, the formation of abnormally aggregated =reactive' proteins such as ß-amyloid (Aß) and tau leading to the development of senile plaques (SP) andneurofibrillary tangles (NFT) respectively. Life-style changes that may reduce theallostatic load and therefore, the risk of dementia are discussed.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationDementia
Subtitle of host publicationprevalence, risk factors and management strategies
EditorsPamela Turner
PublisherNova science
Pages115-138
Number of pages24
ISBN (Electronic)978-1-63321-945-8
ISBN (Print)978-1-63321-928-1
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2014

Publication series

Name Neurology - laboratory and clinical research developments
PublisherNova Science Publishers

Fingerprint

Alzheimer Disease
Vascular Diseases
Craniocerebral Trauma
Allostasis
Genes
Diet
Nerve Degeneration
Mutation
Amyloid beta-Protein Precursor
Immune System Diseases
Amyloid Plaques
Apolipoproteins E
Aluminum
Amyloid
Malnutrition
Blood Vessels
Dementia
Life Style
Immune System
Infection

Keywords

  • Alzheimer's disease
  • Risk factor
  • Aging
  • Genetics
  • Environmental factor
  • Allostatic load

Cite this

Armstrong, R. (2014). Risk factors for Alzheimer's disease. In P. Turner (Ed.), Dementia: prevalence, risk factors and management strategies (pp. 115-138). ( Neurology - laboratory and clinical research developments). Nova science.
Armstrong, Richard. / Risk factors for Alzheimer's disease. Dementia: prevalence, risk factors and management strategies. editor / Pamela Turner. Nova science, 2014. pp. 115-138 ( Neurology - laboratory and clinical research developments).
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Armstrong, R 2014, Risk factors for Alzheimer's disease. in P Turner (ed.), Dementia: prevalence, risk factors and management strategies. Neurology - laboratory and clinical research developments, Nova science, pp. 115-138.

Risk factors for Alzheimer's disease. / Armstrong, Richard.

Dementia: prevalence, risk factors and management strategies. ed. / Pamela Turner. Nova science, 2014. p. 115-138 ( Neurology - laboratory and clinical research developments).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter (peer-reviewed)

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Armstrong R. Risk factors for Alzheimer's disease. In Turner P, editor, Dementia: prevalence, risk factors and management strategies. Nova science. 2014. p. 115-138. ( Neurology - laboratory and clinical research developments).