Point-by-point fibre grating fabrication by femtosecond laser pulses requires tight focusing of the pulses into the core of the fibre. This condition is not easily satisfied in photonic crystal fibres (PCFs) due to the pulse scattering by the holes. In this letter, we present a numerical model of propagation of tightly focused laser beam through PCF in a typical experimental setup. We investigate impact of the numerical aperture of the beam and hole refractive index on the beam scattering and identify optimal conditions for relating the findings to the requirements of grating fabrication. The results explain and quantify recent experimental grating inscription techniques and are indicative of birefringence observed in long-period gratings written by femtosecond laser pulses.
- laser machining
- photonic crystal fibre