The production of low-carbon gaseous fuels from biomass has the potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and promote energy sustainability, stability and affordability around the world. Glycerol, a large-volume by-product of biodiesel production, is a potential feedstock for the production of low-carbon energy vectors. In this present work, an aqueous solution of pure glycerol was reacted under hydrothermal conditions using a total of 10 types of heterogeneous catalysts to evaluate its conversion to gas products (hydrogen, methane, CO, CO2 and C2–C4 hydrocarbon gases). Two bimetallic Ni-Fe and Ni-Cu catalysts, three Pt-based catalysts and physical mixtures of the five catalysts were tested. The reactions were carried out in a batch reactor for 1 h reaction time, using a 9:1 mass ratio of water/glycerol (10 wt%) and the reaction temperatures ranged between 250–350 °C using and without using 1 g of catalyst. The effects of the catalysts and reaction conditions on the conversion of glycerol in terms of carbon and hydrogen gasification efficiencies, selectivity and yields of components in the gas products were investigated. CO2 remained the most dominant gas product in all experiments. The results indicated that increasing the reaction temperature favoured gas formation and both carbon and hydrogen gasification efficiencies. The combination of Ni-Cu and Pt/C catalysts was the most selective catalyst for gas formation at 350 °C, giving carbon gasification efficiency of 95.6 wt%. Individually, the catalyst with the highest hydrogen production was Pt/C and the highest propane yield was obtained with the Ni-Cu bimetallic catalyst. Some catalysts showed good structural stability in hydrothermal media but need improvements towards better yields of desired fuel gases.
|Number of pages||19|
|Early online date||13 Oct 2022|
|Publication status||Published - Oct 2022|
Bibliographical noteCopyright: © 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https:// creativecommons.org/licenses/by/ 4.0/).
- hydrothermal reforming
- heterogeneous catalysis