Semantic linking through spaces for cyber-physical-socio intelligence: a methodology

Hai Zhuge

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Humans consciously and subconsciously establish various links, emerge semantic images and reason in mind, learn linking effect and rules, select linked individuals to interact, and form closed loops through links while co-experiencing in multiple spaces in lifetime. Machines are limited in these abilities although various graph-based models have been used to link resources in the cyber space. The following are fundamental limitations of machine intelligence: (1) machines know few links and rules in the physical space, physiological space, psychological space, socio space and mental space, so it is not realistic to expect machines to discover laws and solve problems in these spaces; and, (2) machines can only process pre-designed algorithms and data structures in the cyber space. They are limited in ability to go beyond the cyber space, to learn linking rules, to know the effect of linking, and to explain computing results according to physical, physiological, psychological and socio laws. Linking various spaces will create a complex space — the Cyber-Physical-Physiological-Psychological-Socio-Mental Environment CP3SME. Diverse spaces will emerge, evolve, compete and cooperate with each other to extend machine intelligence and human intelligence. From multi-disciplinary perspective, this paper reviews previous ideas on various links, introduces the concept of cyber-physical society, proposes the ideal of the CP3SME including its definition, characteristics, and multi-disciplinary revolution, and explores the methodology of linking through spaces for cyber-physical-socio intelligence. The methodology includes new models, principles, mechanisms, scientific issues, and philosophical explanation. The CP3SME aims at an ideal environment for humans to live and work. Exploration will go beyond previous ideals on intelligence and computing.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)988-1019
Number of pages32
JournalArtificial Intelligence
Issue number5-6
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2011

Bibliographical note

NOTICE: this is the author’s version of a work that was accepted for publication in Artificial intelligence. Changes resulting from the publishing process, such as peer review, editing, corrections, structural formatting, and other quality control mechanisms may not be reflected in this document. Changes may have been made to this work since it was submitted for publication. A definitive version was subsequently published in Zhuge, H, 'Semantic linking through spaces for cyber-physical-socio intelligence: A methodology' Artificial intelligence, vol. 175, no. 5-6 (2011) DOI


  • semantic link network
  • cyber-physical society
  • cyber-physical-socio intelligence
  • complex intelligence
  • future interconnection environment
  • interactive semantics
  • resource space model


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