This chapter explains a functional integral approach about impurity in the Tomonaga–Luttinger model. The Tomonaga–Luttinger model of one-dimensional (1D) strongly correlates electrons gives a striking example of non-Fermi-liquid behavior. For simplicity, the chapter considers only a single-mode Tomonaga–Luttinger model, with one species of right- and left-moving electrons, thus, omitting spin indices and considering eventually the simplest linearized model of a single-valley parabolic electron band. The standard operator bosonization is one of the most elegant methods developed in theoretical physics. The main advantage of the bosonization, either in standard or functional form, is that including the quadric electron–electron interaction does not substantially change the free action. The chapter demonstrates the way to develop the formalism of bosonization based on the functional integral representation of observable quantities within the Keldysh formalism.
Bibliographical noteNanophysics: Coherence and Transport
École d'été de Physique des Houches Session LXXXI