Sequential pyrolysis of willow SRC at low and high heating rates: implications for selective pyrolysis

Charles Greenhalf, Daniel Nowakowski, Allan Harms, James Titiloye, Anthony Bridgwater

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The main aim of the work is to investigate sequential pyrolysis of willow SRC using two different heating rates (25 and 1500 °C/min) between 320 and 520 °C. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and pyrolysis - gas chromatography - mass spectroscopy (Py-GC-MS) have been used for this analysis. In addition, laboratory scale processing has been undertaken to compare product distribution from fast and slow pyrolysis at 500 °C. Fast pyrolysis was carried out using a 1 kg/h continuous bubbling fluidized bed reactor, and slow pyrolysis using a 100 g batch reactor. Findings from this study show that heating rate and pyrolysis temperatures have a significant influence on the chemical content of decomposition products. From the analytical sequential pyrolysis, an inverse relationship was seen between the total yield of furfural (at high heating rates) and 2-furanmethanol (at low heating rates). The total yield of 1,2-dihydroxybenzene (catechol) was found to be significant higher at low heating rates. The intermediates of catechol, 2-methoxy-4-(2-propenyl)phenol (eugenol); 2-methoxyphenol (guaiacol); 4-Hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxybenzaldehyde (syringaldehyde) and 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde (vanillin), were found to be highest at high heating rates. It was also found that laboratory scale processing alters the pyrolysis bio-oil chemical composition, and the proportions of pyrolysis product yields. The GC-MS/FID analysis of fast and slow pyrolysis bio-oils reveals significant differences.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)692-702
Number of pages11
Early online date3 Dec 2011
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2012


  • TGA
  • y–GC–MS
  • fast pyrolysis
  • slow pyrolysis
  • bio-oil


Dive into the research topics of 'Sequential pyrolysis of willow SRC at low and high heating rates: implications for selective pyrolysis'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this