The discovery of a new type of soliton occurring in periodic systems is reported. This type of nonlinear excitation exists at a Dirac point of a photonic band structure, and features an oscillating tail that damps algebraically. Solitons in periodic systems are localized states traditionally supported by photonic bandgaps. Here, it is found that besides photonic bandgaps, a Dirac point in the band structure of triangular optical lattices can also sustain solitons. Apart from their theoretical impact within the soliton theory, they have many potential uses because such solitons are possible in both Kerr material and photorefractive crystals that possess self-focusing and self-defocusing nonlinearities. The findings enrich the soliton family and provide information for studies of nonlinear waves in many branches of physics.
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Funding: National Natural Science Foundation of China (11574070, 11404087, 51771186); Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities of China; Postdoctoral Science Foundation (2015M571918, 2017T100442); The European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under the Marie Skłodowska-Curie grant agreement (744817).
- Spatial solitons
- Subwavelength structures