CX3CL1 (fractalkine), the sole member of chemokine CX3C family, is implicated in inflammatory and neuropathic pain via activating its receptor CX3CR1 on neural cells in spinal cord. However, it has not been fully elucidated whether CX3CL1 or CX3CR1 contributes to the development of morphine tolerance. In this study, we found that chronic morphine exposure did not alter the expressions of CX3CL1 and CX3CR1 in spinal cord. And neither exogenous CX3CL1 nor CX3CR1 inhibitor could affect the development of morphine tolerance. The cellular localizations of spinal CX3CL1 and CX3CR1 changed from neuron and microglia, respectively, to all the neural cells during the development of morphine tolerance. A microarray profiling revealed that 15 members of chemokine family excluding CX3CL1 and CX3CR1 were up-regulated in morphine-treated rats. Our study provides evidence that spinal CX3CL1 and CX3CR1 may not be involved in the development of morphine tolerance directly.
Bibliographical noteThe final publication is available at Springer via http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11064-017-2364-z
- morphine tolerance