Superfocusing of high-M2 semiconductor laser beams: experimental demonstration

G.S. Sokolovskii, V. Melissinaki, V.V. Dudelev, S.N. Losev, K.K. Soboleva, E.D. Kolykhalova, A.G. Deryagin, V.I. Kuchinskii, E.A. Viktorov, M. Farsari, W. Sibbett, E.U. Rafailov

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Abstract

The focusing of multimode laser diode beams is probably the most significant problem that hinders the expansion of the high-power semiconductor lasers in many spatially-demanding applications. Generally, the 'quality' of laser beams is characterized by so-called 'beam propagation parameter' M2, which is defined as the ratio of the divergence of the laser beam to that of a diffraction-limited counterpart. Therefore, M2 determines the ratio of the beam focal-spot size to that of the 'ideal' Gaussian beam focused by the same optical system. Typically, M2 takes the value of 20-50 for high-power broad-stripe laser diodes thus making the focal-spot 1-2 orders of magnitude larger than the diffraction limit. The idea of 'superfocusing' for high-M2 beams relies on a technique developed for the generation of Bessel beams from laser diodes using a cone-shaped lens (axicon). With traditional focusing of multimode radiation, different curvatures of the wavefronts of the various constituent modes lead to a shift of their focal points along the optical axis that in turn implies larger focal-spot sizes with correspondingly increased values of M2. In contrast, the generation of a Bessel-type beam with an axicon relies on 'self-interference' of each mode thus eliminating the underlying reason for an increase in the focal-spot size. For an experimental demonstration of the proposed technique, we used a fiber-coupled laser diode with M2 below 20 and an emission wavelength in ~1μm range. Utilization of the axicons with apex angle of 140deg, made by direct laser writing on a fiber tip, enabled the demonstration of an order of magnitude decrease of the focal-spot size compared to that achievable using an 'ideal' lens of unity numerical aperture.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationSemiconductor lasers and laser dynamics VI
EditorsKrassimir Panajotov, Marc Sciamanna, Angel Valle, Rainer Michalzik
PublisherSPIE
Number of pages7
ISBN (Print)978-1-628-41082-2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2014
EventSemiconductor lasers and laser dynamics VI - Brussels, Belgium
Duration: 14 Apr 201417 Apr 2014

Publication series

NameSPIE proceedings
PublisherSPIE
Volume9134
ISSN (Print)0277-786X

Conference

ConferenceSemiconductor lasers and laser dynamics VI
CountryBelgium
CityBrussels
Period14/04/1417/04/14

Fingerprint

Semiconductor Lasers
Laser Diode
Laser Beam
Laser beams
Semiconductor lasers
Demonstrations
semiconductor lasers
laser beams
Lens
Diffraction
Fiber
Bessel Beam
Lenses
Beam Propagation
Gaussian Beam
High Power Laser
Apex
Friedrich Wilhelm Bessel
Optical fiber coupling
Wave Front

Bibliographical note

G. S. Sokolovskii ; V. Melissinaki ; V. V. Dudelev ; S. N. Losev ; K. K. Soboleva ; E. D. Kolykhalova ; A. G. Deryagin ; V. I. Kuchinskii ; E. A. Viktorov ; M. Farsari ; W. Sibbett and E. U. Rafailov, "Superfocusing of high-M2 semiconductor laser beams: experimental demonstration", Proc. SPIE 9134, Semiconductor Lasers and Laser Dynamics VI, 91341N (May 2, 2014).

Copyright 2014. Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers. One print or electronic copy may be made for personal use only. Systematic reproduction and distribution, duplication of any material in this paper for a fee or for commercial purposes, or modification of the content of the paper are prohibited.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.2052483

Keywords

  • Bessel beam
  • diffraction limit
  • superfocusing

Cite this

Sokolovskii, G. S., Melissinaki, V., Dudelev, V. V., Losev, S. N., Soboleva, K. K., Kolykhalova, E. D., ... Rafailov, E. U. (2014). Superfocusing of high-M2 semiconductor laser beams: experimental demonstration. In K. Panajotov, M. Sciamanna, A. Valle, & R. Michalzik (Eds.), Semiconductor lasers and laser dynamics VI [91341N] (SPIE proceedings; Vol. 9134). SPIE. https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2052483
Sokolovskii, G.S. ; Melissinaki, V. ; Dudelev, V.V. ; Losev, S.N. ; Soboleva, K.K. ; Kolykhalova, E.D. ; Deryagin, A.G. ; Kuchinskii, V.I. ; Viktorov, E.A. ; Farsari, M. ; Sibbett, W. ; Rafailov, E.U. / Superfocusing of high-M2 semiconductor laser beams : experimental demonstration. Semiconductor lasers and laser dynamics VI. editor / Krassimir Panajotov ; Marc Sciamanna ; Angel Valle ; Rainer Michalzik. SPIE, 2014. (SPIE proceedings).
@inproceedings{d6bb46cf5c5441b6b21b9601f424d2dc,
title = "Superfocusing of high-M2 semiconductor laser beams: experimental demonstration",
abstract = "The focusing of multimode laser diode beams is probably the most significant problem that hinders the expansion of the high-power semiconductor lasers in many spatially-demanding applications. Generally, the 'quality' of laser beams is characterized by so-called 'beam propagation parameter' M2, which is defined as the ratio of the divergence of the laser beam to that of a diffraction-limited counterpart. Therefore, M2 determines the ratio of the beam focal-spot size to that of the 'ideal' Gaussian beam focused by the same optical system. Typically, M2 takes the value of 20-50 for high-power broad-stripe laser diodes thus making the focal-spot 1-2 orders of magnitude larger than the diffraction limit. The idea of 'superfocusing' for high-M2 beams relies on a technique developed for the generation of Bessel beams from laser diodes using a cone-shaped lens (axicon). With traditional focusing of multimode radiation, different curvatures of the wavefronts of the various constituent modes lead to a shift of their focal points along the optical axis that in turn implies larger focal-spot sizes with correspondingly increased values of M2. In contrast, the generation of a Bessel-type beam with an axicon relies on 'self-interference' of each mode thus eliminating the underlying reason for an increase in the focal-spot size. For an experimental demonstration of the proposed technique, we used a fiber-coupled laser diode with M2 below 20 and an emission wavelength in ~1μm range. Utilization of the axicons with apex angle of 140deg, made by direct laser writing on a fiber tip, enabled the demonstration of an order of magnitude decrease of the focal-spot size compared to that achievable using an 'ideal' lens of unity numerical aperture.",
keywords = "Bessel beam, diffraction limit, superfocusing",
author = "G.S. Sokolovskii and V. Melissinaki and V.V. Dudelev and S.N. Losev and K.K. Soboleva and E.D. Kolykhalova and A.G. Deryagin and V.I. Kuchinskii and E.A. Viktorov and M. Farsari and W. Sibbett and E.U. Rafailov",
note = "G. S. Sokolovskii ; V. Melissinaki ; V. V. Dudelev ; S. N. Losev ; K. K. Soboleva ; E. D. Kolykhalova ; A. G. Deryagin ; V. I. Kuchinskii ; E. A. Viktorov ; M. Farsari ; W. Sibbett and E. U. Rafailov, {"}Superfocusing of high-M2 semiconductor laser beams: experimental demonstration{"}, Proc. SPIE 9134, Semiconductor Lasers and Laser Dynamics VI, 91341N (May 2, 2014). Copyright 2014. Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers. One print or electronic copy may be made for personal use only. Systematic reproduction and distribution, duplication of any material in this paper for a fee or for commercial purposes, or modification of the content of the paper are prohibited. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.2052483",
year = "2014",
doi = "10.1117/12.2052483",
language = "English",
isbn = "978-1-628-41082-2",
series = "SPIE proceedings",
publisher = "SPIE",
editor = "Krassimir Panajotov and Marc Sciamanna and Angel Valle and Rainer Michalzik",
booktitle = "Semiconductor lasers and laser dynamics VI",
address = "United States",

}

Sokolovskii, GS, Melissinaki, V, Dudelev, VV, Losev, SN, Soboleva, KK, Kolykhalova, ED, Deryagin, AG, Kuchinskii, VI, Viktorov, EA, Farsari, M, Sibbett, W & Rafailov, EU 2014, Superfocusing of high-M2 semiconductor laser beams: experimental demonstration. in K Panajotov, M Sciamanna, A Valle & R Michalzik (eds), Semiconductor lasers and laser dynamics VI., 91341N, SPIE proceedings, vol. 9134, SPIE, Semiconductor lasers and laser dynamics VI, Brussels, Belgium, 14/04/14. https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2052483

Superfocusing of high-M2 semiconductor laser beams : experimental demonstration. / Sokolovskii, G.S.; Melissinaki, V.; Dudelev, V.V.; Losev, S.N.; Soboleva, K.K.; Kolykhalova, E.D.; Deryagin, A.G.; Kuchinskii, V.I.; Viktorov, E.A.; Farsari, M.; Sibbett, W.; Rafailov, E.U.

Semiconductor lasers and laser dynamics VI. ed. / Krassimir Panajotov; Marc Sciamanna; Angel Valle; Rainer Michalzik. SPIE, 2014. 91341N (SPIE proceedings; Vol. 9134).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

TY - GEN

T1 - Superfocusing of high-M2 semiconductor laser beams

T2 - experimental demonstration

AU - Sokolovskii, G.S.

AU - Melissinaki, V.

AU - Dudelev, V.V.

AU - Losev, S.N.

AU - Soboleva, K.K.

AU - Kolykhalova, E.D.

AU - Deryagin, A.G.

AU - Kuchinskii, V.I.

AU - Viktorov, E.A.

AU - Farsari, M.

AU - Sibbett, W.

AU - Rafailov, E.U.

N1 - G. S. Sokolovskii ; V. Melissinaki ; V. V. Dudelev ; S. N. Losev ; K. K. Soboleva ; E. D. Kolykhalova ; A. G. Deryagin ; V. I. Kuchinskii ; E. A. Viktorov ; M. Farsari ; W. Sibbett and E. U. Rafailov, "Superfocusing of high-M2 semiconductor laser beams: experimental demonstration", Proc. SPIE 9134, Semiconductor Lasers and Laser Dynamics VI, 91341N (May 2, 2014). Copyright 2014. Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers. One print or electronic copy may be made for personal use only. Systematic reproduction and distribution, duplication of any material in this paper for a fee or for commercial purposes, or modification of the content of the paper are prohibited. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.2052483

PY - 2014

Y1 - 2014

N2 - The focusing of multimode laser diode beams is probably the most significant problem that hinders the expansion of the high-power semiconductor lasers in many spatially-demanding applications. Generally, the 'quality' of laser beams is characterized by so-called 'beam propagation parameter' M2, which is defined as the ratio of the divergence of the laser beam to that of a diffraction-limited counterpart. Therefore, M2 determines the ratio of the beam focal-spot size to that of the 'ideal' Gaussian beam focused by the same optical system. Typically, M2 takes the value of 20-50 for high-power broad-stripe laser diodes thus making the focal-spot 1-2 orders of magnitude larger than the diffraction limit. The idea of 'superfocusing' for high-M2 beams relies on a technique developed for the generation of Bessel beams from laser diodes using a cone-shaped lens (axicon). With traditional focusing of multimode radiation, different curvatures of the wavefronts of the various constituent modes lead to a shift of their focal points along the optical axis that in turn implies larger focal-spot sizes with correspondingly increased values of M2. In contrast, the generation of a Bessel-type beam with an axicon relies on 'self-interference' of each mode thus eliminating the underlying reason for an increase in the focal-spot size. For an experimental demonstration of the proposed technique, we used a fiber-coupled laser diode with M2 below 20 and an emission wavelength in ~1μm range. Utilization of the axicons with apex angle of 140deg, made by direct laser writing on a fiber tip, enabled the demonstration of an order of magnitude decrease of the focal-spot size compared to that achievable using an 'ideal' lens of unity numerical aperture.

AB - The focusing of multimode laser diode beams is probably the most significant problem that hinders the expansion of the high-power semiconductor lasers in many spatially-demanding applications. Generally, the 'quality' of laser beams is characterized by so-called 'beam propagation parameter' M2, which is defined as the ratio of the divergence of the laser beam to that of a diffraction-limited counterpart. Therefore, M2 determines the ratio of the beam focal-spot size to that of the 'ideal' Gaussian beam focused by the same optical system. Typically, M2 takes the value of 20-50 for high-power broad-stripe laser diodes thus making the focal-spot 1-2 orders of magnitude larger than the diffraction limit. The idea of 'superfocusing' for high-M2 beams relies on a technique developed for the generation of Bessel beams from laser diodes using a cone-shaped lens (axicon). With traditional focusing of multimode radiation, different curvatures of the wavefronts of the various constituent modes lead to a shift of their focal points along the optical axis that in turn implies larger focal-spot sizes with correspondingly increased values of M2. In contrast, the generation of a Bessel-type beam with an axicon relies on 'self-interference' of each mode thus eliminating the underlying reason for an increase in the focal-spot size. For an experimental demonstration of the proposed technique, we used a fiber-coupled laser diode with M2 below 20 and an emission wavelength in ~1μm range. Utilization of the axicons with apex angle of 140deg, made by direct laser writing on a fiber tip, enabled the demonstration of an order of magnitude decrease of the focal-spot size compared to that achievable using an 'ideal' lens of unity numerical aperture.

KW - Bessel beam

KW - diffraction limit

KW - superfocusing

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84902438561&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1117/12.2052483

DO - 10.1117/12.2052483

M3 - Conference contribution

AN - SCOPUS:84902438561

SN - 978-1-628-41082-2

T3 - SPIE proceedings

BT - Semiconductor lasers and laser dynamics VI

A2 - Panajotov, Krassimir

A2 - Sciamanna, Marc

A2 - Valle, Angel

A2 - Michalzik, Rainer

PB - SPIE

ER -

Sokolovskii GS, Melissinaki V, Dudelev VV, Losev SN, Soboleva KK, Kolykhalova ED et al. Superfocusing of high-M2 semiconductor laser beams: experimental demonstration. In Panajotov K, Sciamanna M, Valle A, Michalzik R, editors, Semiconductor lasers and laser dynamics VI. SPIE. 2014. 91341N. (SPIE proceedings). https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2052483