Sustainable biodiesel from flex-mix feedstock and its combustion in a VCR-CRDI engine with variable exhaust gas recirculation and injection pressure

Vikas Sharma, Abul Kalam Hossain, Ganesh Duraisamy, Justine Jacob Thomas

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Biodiesel produced from single feedstocks has many challenges due to variations in the oil properties. The flex-mix approach is a long-term solution for turning mixed feedstock into high-quality biodiesels. In this investigation, a pre-mixed used cooking oil and animal fat (pig fat) mixture (from 20% to 80%) was transesterified to produce flex-mix methyl ester (FMME). The FMME fuel characteristics were tested and compared to biodiesel standards. Generally, biodiesel emits higher oxides of nitrogen (NO x ) gas due to the presence of highly unsaturated compounds and oxygen. The present study aims to address this issue by adopting the flex-mix approach in combination with fuel injection strategies (400, 500 and 600 bar), exhaust gas recirculation (EGR 10%, 20% and 30%) and variable compression ratio (CR 17.5:1, 20:1 and 22:1). At a CR of 22 and an injection pressure (P inj) of 600 bar, the FMME fuel without EGR shows a minimum reduction in brake thermal efficiency of 0.15% when compared to diesel. Nitric oxide gas emissions decreased by nearly 50% for all P inj and EGR values, but they rose when the compression ratio was increased to 20 and 22. Smoke and hydrocarbon emissions also increased with the exhaust gas proportion. The engine performance with FMME fuel was found to be equivalent to that with fossil diesel fuel. According to the findings, the flex-mix approach could be a long-term alternative to producing renewable fuel for off-road diesel engine application.
Original languageEnglish
Article number014001
JournalJournal of Physics: Energy
Issue number1
Early online date16 Nov 2022
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2023

Bibliographical note

Copyright © 2022 The Author(s). Published by IOP Publishing Ltd.Original content from this work may be used under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 license[]. Any further distribution of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the title of the work, journal citation and DOI.

Funding Information:
The study was funded by the UKIERI Project (Grant No. DST-UKIERI 18-19-04): Waste to Energy—Low Temperature Combustion of Sustainable Green Fuels.


  • Bioenergy and Biofuels
  • biodiesel
  • flex-mix
  • combustion
  • emission
  • variable compression
  • waste to energy


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