The emergence of antimicrobial resistant strains bacteria and a decline in the discovery of new antibiotics has led to the idea of combining various antimicrobials to treat resistant strains and/or polymicrobial infections. Metal oxide-doped glasses have been extensively investigated for their antimicrobial potential; however to date, most experiments have focused on single metal species in isolation. The present study investigates the antimicrobial potential of sodium calcium phosphates (P2O5)50(Na2O)20(CaO)30–X(MO)X, where M is cobalt, copper, or zinc as single species. In addition, this work studied the effect of co-doping glasses containing two different metal ions (Co + Cu, Co + Zn, and Cu + Zn). The antimicrobial efficacy of all glasses was tested against Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli) bacterial strains, as well as a fungal strain (Candida albicans). Minimum inhibitory and bactericidal concentrations and time kill/synergy assays were used to assess the antimicrobial activity. An enhanced antimicrobial effect, at 5 mg/mL concentration, was exhibited by cobalt, copper, and zinc oxide glasses alone and in combinations. A synergistic antimicrobial effect was observed by Cu + Co and Cu + Zn against E. coli and Cu + Zn against S. aureus.
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- antimicrobial resistance
- bioactive glasses