PURPOSE: To evaluate systemic risk factors of dry eye disease, aqueous tear deficiency, and meibomian gland dysfunction.
METHODS: Three hundred and seventy-two community residents (222 females, 150 males; mean ± SD age, 39 ± 22 years) were recruited in a cross-sectional study. Past medical history, dry eye symptomology, ocular surface characteristics, and tear film quality were evaluated for each participant within a single clinical session. The diagnosis of dry eye disease, aqueous tear deficiency, and meibomian gland dysfunction were based on the global consensus recommendations of the Tear Film and Ocular Surface Society's Dry Eye Workshop II (TFOS DEWS II) and International Workshop on Meibomian Gland Dysfunction.
RESULTS: Overall, 109 (29%) participants fulfilled the TFOS DEWS II criteria for dry eye disease, 42 (11%) had aqueous tear deficiency, and 95 (26%) had meibomian gland dysfunction. Multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated that systemic rheumatologic disease and antidepressant medication were independently associated with aqueous tear deficiency (both p < 0.05). Significant risk factors for meibomian gland dysfunction included age, East Asian ethnicity, migraine headaches, thyroid disease, and oral contraceptive therapy (all p ≤ 0.01).
CONCLUSIONS: Both etiological subtypes of dry eye disease were associated with a number of systemic risk factors. These findings would support routine systemic inquiry of dry eye disease and associated systemic conditions and medications, in order to facilitate opportunistic screening and timely inter-disciplinary referral where necessary.
Bibliographical note© 2020, Elsevier. Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/
- Dry eye
- Lacrimal gland
- Meibomian gland
- Ocular surface
- Risk factor
- Tear film