Technology, innovation and SMEs' export intensity: Evidence from Morocco

Mohamed Yacine Haddoud*, Adah-Kole Onjewu, Ned Kock, Vahid Jafari-Sadeghi, Paul Jones

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This study seeks to understand the scarcely examined relationships between SMEs' foreign technology licensing, R&D expenditure, innovation and export intensity. Espousing an integrated open innovation and self-selection paradigm, observations of 446 Moroccan SMEs are analysed through structural equation modelling. The definitive path analysis showed that foreign technology licensing and R&D expenditure distinctively affect innovation and, in turn, innovation increases export intensity. In further insights, to illustrate how the distribution of these inputs enhances internationalisation, a probabilistic analysis shows that foreign technology licensing, R&D expenditure and innovation will incrementally stimulate export intensity by >71 %. The permutations of these variables in the fresh setting of Morocco summon scholars' empirical attention at the same time as policymakers' consideration.
Original languageEnglish
Article number122475
Number of pages13
JournalTechnological Forecasting and Social Change
Issue numberJune 2023
Early online date17 Mar 2023
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jun 2023

Bibliographical note

Copyright © 2023, Elsevier Inc. This accepted manuscript version is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International


  • Foreign technology licensing
  • R&D
  • Innovation
  • Export intensity
  • SMEs
  • Morocco


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