The Bari Manifesto: An interoperability framework for essential biodiversity variables

Alex R. Hardisty*, William K. Michener, Donat Agosti, Enrique Alonso García, Lucy Bastin, Lee Belbin, Anne Bowser, Pier Luigi Buttigieg, Dora A.L. Canhos, Willi Egloff, Renato De Giovanni, Rui Figueira, Quentin Groom, Robert P. Guralnick, Donald Hobern, Wim Hugo, Dimitris Koureas, Liqiang Ji, Wouter Los, Jeffrey ManuelDavid Manset, Jorrit Poelen, Hannu Saarenmaa, Dmitry Schigel, Paul F. Uhlir, W. Daniel Kissling

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Essential Biodiversity Variables (EBV) are fundamental variables that can be used for assessing biodiversity change over time, for determining adherence to biodiversity policy, for monitoring progress towards sustainable development goals, and for tracking biodiversity responses to disturbances and management interventions. Data from observations or models that provide measured or estimated EBV values, which we refer to as EBV data products, can help to capture the above processes and trends and can serve as a coherent framework for documenting trends in biodiversity. Using primary biodiversity records and other raw data as sources to produce EBV data products depends on cooperation and interoperability among multiple stakeholders, including those collecting and mobilising data for EBVs and those producing, publishing and preserving EBV data products. Here, we encapsulate ten principles for the current best practice in EBV-focused biodiversity informatics as ‘The Bari Manifesto’, serving as implementation guidelines for data and research infrastructure providers to support the emerging EBV operational framework based on trans-national and cross-infrastructure scientific workflows. The principles provide guidance on how to contribute towards the production of EBV data products that are globally oriented, while remaining appropriate to the producer's own mission, vision and goals. These ten principles cover: data management planning; data structure; metadata; services; data quality; workflows; provenance; ontologies/vocabularies; data preservation; and accessibility. For each principle, desired outcomes and goals have been formulated. Some specific actions related to fulfilling the Bari Manifesto principles are highlighted in the context of each of four groups of organizations contributing to enabling data interoperability - data standards bodies, research data infrastructures, the pertinent research communities, and funders. The Bari Manifesto provides a roadmap enabling support for routine generation of EBV data products, and increases the likelihood of success for a global EBV framework.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)22-31
Number of pages10
JournalEcological Informatics
Early online date17 Nov 2018
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2019

Bibliographical note

©2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (


  • Cyberinfrastructure
  • Data products
  • E-infrastructure
  • Essential biodiversity variables
  • Informatics
  • Interoperability


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