The design and scale-up of spray dried particle delivery systems

Ali Al-Khattawi, Andrew Bayly, Andrew Phillips, David Wilson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


INTRODUCTION: The rising demand for pharmaceutical particles with tailored physicochemical properties has opened new markets for spray drying especially for solubility enhancement, improving inhalation medicines and stabilization of biopharmaceuticals. Despite this, the spray drying literature is scattered and often does not address the principles underpinning robust development of pharmaceuticals. It is therefore necessary to present clearer picture of the field and highlight the factors influencing particle design and scale-up. Areas covered: The review presents a systematic analysis of the trends in development of particle delivery systems using spray drying. This is followed by exploring the mechanisms governing particle formation in the process stages. Particle design factors including those of equipment configurations and feed/process attributes were highlighted. Finally, the review summarises the current industrial approaches for upscaling pharmaceutical spray drying. Expert opinion: Spray drying provides the ability to design particles of the desired functionality. This greatly benefits the pharmaceutical sector especially as product specifications are becoming more encompassing and exacting. One of the biggest barriers to product translation remains one of scale-up/scale-down. A shift from trial and error approaches to model-based particle design helps to enhance control over product properties. To this end, process innovations and advanced manufacturing technologies are particularly welcomed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)47-63
Number of pages17
JournalExpert Opinion on Drug Delivery
Issue number1
Early online date4 May 2017
Publication statusPublished - 2 Jan 2018

Bibliographical note

This is an Accepted Manuscript of an article published by Taylor & Francis in Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery on 4/5/17, available online:


  • spray drying
  • particle design
  • drug delivery
  • scale-up
  • solubility
  • pulmonary
  • biopharmaceuticals
  • controlled-release


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