The development of a short scale measuring aggressiveness and anger in competitive athletes

J. P. Maxwell*, Elisabeth Moores

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objectives: The study of aggression and anger in competitive sport relies on accurate and economical measurement via observation, interview and questionnaire. Unfortunately, extant questionnaires have been criticised for having poor validity, are not sport specific, or reflect mood states rather than trait qualities. Therefore, a measure of trait anger and aggressiveness in competitive athletes was developed. Method: A list of statements representing aggressiveness and anger was generated and distributed to competitive athletes from diverse sports. Exploratory and confirmatory analyses were used to verify the theoretically predicted factor structure. Correlations with an extant measure of aggression and anger were used to ascertain concurrent validity. Discriminant validity was tested by comparing males with females, and aggressive with non-aggressive footballers. Results: A 12-item scale (Competitive Aggressiveness and Anger Scale, CAAS) consisting of two subscales was derived using principal component factor analysis with oblimin rotation. Confirmatory factor analysis using structural equation modelling confirmed the overall structure. Test-retest correlation, construct and discriminant validities were good, supporting the utility of the scale as a measure of athlete trait aggressiveness and anger. Conclusions: The CAAS appears to be a useful measure of athletic anger and aggressiveness. Its brevity and ability to discriminate aggressive from non-aggressive athletes should prove useful for future research concerning aggressive behaviour in competitive athletes. © 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)179-193
Number of pages15
JournalPsychology of Sport and Exercise
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2007


  • anger
  • competitive sport
  • competitive athletes
  • aggressiveness
  • sports


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