The effect of zinc and titanium on the structure of calcium-sodium phosphate based glass

Robert M. Moss, Ensanya A. Abou Neel, David M. Pickup, Helen L. Twyman, Richard A. Martin, Michael D. Henson, Emma R. Barney, Alex C. Hannon, Jonathan C. Knowles, Robert J. Newport

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


An array of different structural probes has been used to define the effect of adding Zn and Ti to a sodium-calcium phosphate glass. X-ray absorption spectroscopy at the Zn K-edge suggests that the Zn atoms occupy mixed (4- and 6-fold) sites within the glass matrix. X-ray diffraction reveals a feature at 2.03 angstrom that develops with the addition of Zn and Ti and is consistent with Zn-O and Ti-O near-neighbour distances. Neutron diffraction is used to resolve two distinct P-O distances and highlights the decrease in P center dot center dot center dot P coordination number from 2.0 to 1.7 as the Ti metal concentration rises, which is attributed to the O/P fraction moving away from the metaphosphate value of 3.0 to 3.1 with the addition of Ti. Other correlations, such as those associated with CaO(x) and NaO(x) polyhedra, remain largely unaffected. These results suggest that the network forming P center dot center dot center dot P correlation is most disrupted, with the disorder parameter rising from 0.07 to 0.10 angstrom with the additional modifiers. Zn appears to be introduced into the network as a direct replacement for Ca and causes no structural variation over the composition range studied.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1319-1324
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Non-Crystalline Solids
Issue number25-27
Early online date20 May 2010
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jun 2010


  • glass structure G188
  • neutron diffraction N130
  • x-ray diffraction X130
  • x-ray absorption X120


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