The human immune system: Part 2

Richard A. Armstrong

Research output: Contribution to specialist publication or newspaperArticle


For the immune system to function effectively, the body must be able to distinguish foreign antigens from self antigens. However, the mechanisms which maintain this distinction may break down and result in an auto-immune disease in which self-reacting antibodies and T-cells are produced. This article discusses first, the evidence for the existence of human auto-immune disease and second, the auto-immune diseases which have characteristic ocular symptoms.
Original languageEnglish
Number of pages3
Specialist publicationIndian Optician
Publication statusPublished - Apr 1996


  • immune system
  • function
  • foreign antigens
  • self antigens
  • auto-immune disease
  • ocular symptoms


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