Dry powders suitable for inhalation containing β-estradiol, leucine as a dispersibility enhancer and lactose as a bulking agent were prepared by spray-drying from aqueous ethanol formulations. The influence of formulation components on the characteristics of the resultant spray-dried powders was examined through the use of a range of ethanol concentrations (10-50% v/v) in the solvent used to prepare the initial formulations. Additionally, the amount of leucine required to act as a dispersibility enhancer was investigated by varying the amount of leucine added to the formulation prior to spray-drying. Following spray-drying, resultant powders were characterised using scanning electron microscopy, laser diffraction and tapped density measurements, and the aerosolisation performance determined using Twin Stage Impinger and Andersen Cascade Impactor analysis. We demonstrate that selection of appropriate solvent systems and leucine concentration allows the preparation of spray-dried powders that display enhanced aerosolisation properties, and would be predicted to exhibit high deposition in the lower regions of the respiratory tract. © 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
- dry powder
- pulmonary drug delivery