The influence on unaided vision of age, pupil diameter and spherocylindrical refractive error

Rebecca M. Rushton, Richard A. Armstrong, Mark C.M. Dunne

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Background - The aim was to derive equations for the relationship between unaided vision and age, pupil diameter, iris colour and sphero-cylindrical refractive error.
Methods - Data were collected from 663 healthy right eyes of white subjects aged 20 to 70 years. Subjective sphero-cylindrical refractive errors ranged from -6.8 to +9.4 D (mean spherical equivalent), -1.5 to +1.9 D (orthogonal component, J0) and -0.8 to 1.0 D (oblique component, J45). Cylinder axis orientation was orthogonal in 46 per cent of the eyes and oblique in 18 per cent. Unaided vision (-0.3 to +1.3 logMAR), pupil diameter (2.3 to 7.5 mm) and iris colour (67 per cent light/blue irides) was recorded. The sample included mostly females (60 per cent) and many contact lens wearers (42 per cent) and so the influences of these parameters were also investigated.
Results - Decision tree analysis showed that sex, iris colour, contact lens wear and cylinder axis orientation did not influence the relationship between unaided vision and refractive error. New equations for the dependence of the minimum angle of resolution on age and pupil diameter arose from step backwards multiple linear regressions carried out separately on the myopes (2.91.scalar vector +0.51.pupil diameter -3.14 ) and hyperopes (1.55.scalar vector + 0.06.age – 3.45 ).
Conclusion - The new equations may be useful in simulators designed for teaching purposes as they accounted for 81 per cent (for myopes) and 53 per cent (for hyperopes) of the variance in measured data. In comparison, previously published equations accounted for not more than 76 per cent (for myopes) and 24 per cent (for hyperopes) of the variance depending on whether they included pupil size. The new equations are, as far as is known to the authors, the first to include age. The age-related decline in accommodation is reflected in the equation for hyperopes.
LanguageEnglish
Pages328-335
Number of pages8
JournalClinical and Experimental Optometry
Volume99
Issue number4
Early online date8 Apr 2016
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2016

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Refractive Errors
Pupil
Iris
Color
Contact Lenses
Decision Trees
Decision Support Techniques
Linear Models
Teaching
Light

Bibliographical note

This is the peer reviewed version of the following article: Rushton, R. M., Armstrong, R. A., & Dunne, M. C. M. (2016). The influence on unaided vision of age, pupil diameter and spherocylindrical refractive error. Clinical and Experimental Optometry, 99(4), 328-335, which has been published in final form at 10.1111/cxo.12344. This article may be used for non-commercial purposes in accordance with Wiley Terms and Conditions for Self-Archiving.

Keywords

  • age
  • ametropia
  • pupil
  • vision

Cite this

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title = "The influence on unaided vision of age, pupil diameter and spherocylindrical refractive error",
abstract = "Background - The aim was to derive equations for the relationship between unaided vision and age, pupil diameter, iris colour and sphero-cylindrical refractive error.Methods - Data were collected from 663 healthy right eyes of white subjects aged 20 to 70 years. Subjective sphero-cylindrical refractive errors ranged from -6.8 to +9.4 D (mean spherical equivalent), -1.5 to +1.9 D (orthogonal component, J0) and -0.8 to 1.0 D (oblique component, J45). Cylinder axis orientation was orthogonal in 46 per cent of the eyes and oblique in 18 per cent. Unaided vision (-0.3 to +1.3 logMAR), pupil diameter (2.3 to 7.5 mm) and iris colour (67 per cent light/blue irides) was recorded. The sample included mostly females (60 per cent) and many contact lens wearers (42 per cent) and so the influences of these parameters were also investigated.Results - Decision tree analysis showed that sex, iris colour, contact lens wear and cylinder axis orientation did not influence the relationship between unaided vision and refractive error. New equations for the dependence of the minimum angle of resolution on age and pupil diameter arose from step backwards multiple linear regressions carried out separately on the myopes (2.91.scalar vector +0.51.pupil diameter -3.14 ) and hyperopes (1.55.scalar vector + 0.06.age – 3.45 ).Conclusion - The new equations may be useful in simulators designed for teaching purposes as they accounted for 81 per cent (for myopes) and 53 per cent (for hyperopes) of the variance in measured data. In comparison, previously published equations accounted for not more than 76 per cent (for myopes) and 24 per cent (for hyperopes) of the variance depending on whether they included pupil size. The new equations are, as far as is known to the authors, the first to include age. The age-related decline in accommodation is reflected in the equation for hyperopes.",
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The influence on unaided vision of age, pupil diameter and spherocylindrical refractive error. / Rushton, Rebecca M.; Armstrong, Richard A.; Dunne, Mark C.M.

In: Clinical and Experimental Optometry, Vol. 99, No. 4, 07.2016, p. 328-335.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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N2 - Background - The aim was to derive equations for the relationship between unaided vision and age, pupil diameter, iris colour and sphero-cylindrical refractive error.Methods - Data were collected from 663 healthy right eyes of white subjects aged 20 to 70 years. Subjective sphero-cylindrical refractive errors ranged from -6.8 to +9.4 D (mean spherical equivalent), -1.5 to +1.9 D (orthogonal component, J0) and -0.8 to 1.0 D (oblique component, J45). Cylinder axis orientation was orthogonal in 46 per cent of the eyes and oblique in 18 per cent. Unaided vision (-0.3 to +1.3 logMAR), pupil diameter (2.3 to 7.5 mm) and iris colour (67 per cent light/blue irides) was recorded. The sample included mostly females (60 per cent) and many contact lens wearers (42 per cent) and so the influences of these parameters were also investigated.Results - Decision tree analysis showed that sex, iris colour, contact lens wear and cylinder axis orientation did not influence the relationship between unaided vision and refractive error. New equations for the dependence of the minimum angle of resolution on age and pupil diameter arose from step backwards multiple linear regressions carried out separately on the myopes (2.91.scalar vector +0.51.pupil diameter -3.14 ) and hyperopes (1.55.scalar vector + 0.06.age – 3.45 ).Conclusion - The new equations may be useful in simulators designed for teaching purposes as they accounted for 81 per cent (for myopes) and 53 per cent (for hyperopes) of the variance in measured data. In comparison, previously published equations accounted for not more than 76 per cent (for myopes) and 24 per cent (for hyperopes) of the variance depending on whether they included pupil size. The new equations are, as far as is known to the authors, the first to include age. The age-related decline in accommodation is reflected in the equation for hyperopes.

AB - Background - The aim was to derive equations for the relationship between unaided vision and age, pupil diameter, iris colour and sphero-cylindrical refractive error.Methods - Data were collected from 663 healthy right eyes of white subjects aged 20 to 70 years. Subjective sphero-cylindrical refractive errors ranged from -6.8 to +9.4 D (mean spherical equivalent), -1.5 to +1.9 D (orthogonal component, J0) and -0.8 to 1.0 D (oblique component, J45). Cylinder axis orientation was orthogonal in 46 per cent of the eyes and oblique in 18 per cent. Unaided vision (-0.3 to +1.3 logMAR), pupil diameter (2.3 to 7.5 mm) and iris colour (67 per cent light/blue irides) was recorded. The sample included mostly females (60 per cent) and many contact lens wearers (42 per cent) and so the influences of these parameters were also investigated.Results - Decision tree analysis showed that sex, iris colour, contact lens wear and cylinder axis orientation did not influence the relationship between unaided vision and refractive error. New equations for the dependence of the minimum angle of resolution on age and pupil diameter arose from step backwards multiple linear regressions carried out separately on the myopes (2.91.scalar vector +0.51.pupil diameter -3.14 ) and hyperopes (1.55.scalar vector + 0.06.age – 3.45 ).Conclusion - The new equations may be useful in simulators designed for teaching purposes as they accounted for 81 per cent (for myopes) and 53 per cent (for hyperopes) of the variance in measured data. In comparison, previously published equations accounted for not more than 76 per cent (for myopes) and 24 per cent (for hyperopes) of the variance depending on whether they included pupil size. The new equations are, as far as is known to the authors, the first to include age. The age-related decline in accommodation is reflected in the equation for hyperopes.

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