The interaction of sodium chlorite with phospholipids and glutathione: a comparison of effects in vitro, in mammalian and in microbial cells

Paul R. Ingram, Natalie Z.M. Homer, Rachel A. Smith, Andrew R. Pitt, Clive G. Wilson, Orest Olejnik, Corinne M. Spickett

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

In this study the interaction of the preservative sodium chlorite with unsaturated lipids and glutathione was investigated, in comparison with peroxides, sodium hypochlorite, and benzalkonium chloride. The aim was to determine whether the action of sodium chlorite could involve membrane lipid damage or antioxidant depletion, and how this related to toxicity in both mammalian and microbial cells. The treatment of phospholipids with chlorite yielded low levels of hydroperoxides, but sodium chlorite oxidized the thiol-containing antioxidant glutathione to its disulfide form very readily in vitro, with a 1:4 oxidant:GSH stoichiometry. In cultured cells, sodium chlorite also caused a substantial depletion of intracellular glutathione, whereas lipid oxidation was not very prominent. Sodium chlorite had a lower toxicity to ocular mammalian cells than benzalkonium chloride, which could be responsible for the different effects of long-term application in the eye. The fungal cells, which were most resistant to sodium chlorite, maintained higher percentage levels of intracellular glutathione during treatment than the mammalian cells. The results show that sodium chlorite can cause oxidative stress in cells, and suggest that cell damage is more likely to be due to interaction with thiol compounds than with cell membrane lipids. The study also provides important information about the differential resistance of ocular cells and microbes to various preservatives and oxidants.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)121-133
Number of pages13
JournalArchives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
Volume410
Issue number1
Early online date12 Dec 2002
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Feb 2003

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Glutathione
Phospholipids
Cells
Benzalkonium Compounds
Membrane Lipids
Sulfhydryl Compounds
Oxidants
Toxicity
Antioxidants
Lipids
Sodium Hypochlorite
Oxidative stress
chlorite
In Vitro Techniques
Peroxides
Sodium Chloride
Stoichiometry
Disulfides
Hydrogen Peroxide
Cultured Cells

Bibliographical note

M1 - Article

Keywords

  • conjunctival epithelial cells
  • corneal epithelial cells
  • glutathione
  • LC-MS
  • lipid peroxidation
  • oxidative stress
  • preservatives
  • sodium chlorite
  • pharmacy and materia medica

Cite this

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abstract = "In this study the interaction of the preservative sodium chlorite with unsaturated lipids and glutathione was investigated, in comparison with peroxides, sodium hypochlorite, and benzalkonium chloride. The aim was to determine whether the action of sodium chlorite could involve membrane lipid damage or antioxidant depletion, and how this related to toxicity in both mammalian and microbial cells. The treatment of phospholipids with chlorite yielded low levels of hydroperoxides, but sodium chlorite oxidized the thiol-containing antioxidant glutathione to its disulfide form very readily in vitro, with a 1:4 oxidant:GSH stoichiometry. In cultured cells, sodium chlorite also caused a substantial depletion of intracellular glutathione, whereas lipid oxidation was not very prominent. Sodium chlorite had a lower toxicity to ocular mammalian cells than benzalkonium chloride, which could be responsible for the different effects of long-term application in the eye. The fungal cells, which were most resistant to sodium chlorite, maintained higher percentage levels of intracellular glutathione during treatment than the mammalian cells. The results show that sodium chlorite can cause oxidative stress in cells, and suggest that cell damage is more likely to be due to interaction with thiol compounds than with cell membrane lipids. The study also provides important information about the differential resistance of ocular cells and microbes to various preservatives and oxidants.",
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The interaction of sodium chlorite with phospholipids and glutathione : a comparison of effects in vitro, in mammalian and in microbial cells. / Ingram, Paul R.; Homer, Natalie Z.M.; Smith, Rachel A.; Pitt, Andrew R.; Wilson, Clive G.; Olejnik, Orest; Spickett, Corinne M.

In: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Vol. 410, No. 1, 01.02.2003, p. 121-133.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - The interaction of sodium chlorite with phospholipids and glutathione

T2 - a comparison of effects in vitro, in mammalian and in microbial cells

AU - Ingram, Paul R.

AU - Homer, Natalie Z.M.

AU - Smith, Rachel A.

AU - Pitt, Andrew R.

AU - Wilson, Clive G.

AU - Olejnik, Orest

AU - Spickett, Corinne M.

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KW - conjunctival epithelial cells

KW - corneal epithelial cells

KW - glutathione

KW - LC-MS

KW - lipid peroxidation

KW - oxidative stress

KW - preservatives

KW - sodium chlorite

KW - pharmacy and materia medica

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