The measurement of degree of servitization: literature review and recommendations

Armando Calabrese, Nathan Levialdi Ghiron, Luigi Tiburzi, Ali Ziaee Bigdeli, Timothy S Baines

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This study reviews systematically the literature on the measurement of the firm-level degree of servitization. The results show that servitization measures are inconsistent across studies, even among those investigating similar research questions, and that a theoretical reference for their appropriate use is still missing. Focusing on these shortcomings, this study conceptualizes the firm-level servitization degree in three classes, i.e. ‘extension’, ‘infusion’, and ‘orientation’. Hence, measures to operationalize each class are derived from the literature review and subsequently discussed with a panel of experts. In addition, servitization measurement is further conceptualized other than firm-level degree, as a measurement at the regional, product, and individual employee levels, other than at the firm level. This study is the first to provide a systematic review on the topic and to develop a general conceptualization and operationalization of servitization measurement. Furthermore, this research is the first to employ an international standard classification of economic activities as a basis to identify objectively firms’ service offerings. This research supports both scholars and practitioners because it brings consistency across studies and applications, thus fostering assessment and comparability of servitization experiences.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1118-1135
Number of pages18
JournalProduction Planning and Control
Issue number13
Early online date26 Apr 2019
Publication statusPublished - 3 Oct 2019

Bibliographical note

This is an Accepted Manuscript of an article published by Taylor & Francis Group in Production Planning and Control on 26 April 2019, available online at:


  • Servitization
  • measurement
  • service infusion
  • service orientation
  • service strategy


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